|ENKERLIN, W - Eastern Mennonite University|
|REYES, J - Eastern Mennonite University|
|MILLER, E - Eastern Mennonite University|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/25/2014
Publication Date: 10/20/2014
Citation: Jang,E.B., Enkerlin,W., Reyes,J., Miller,E. 2014. Trapping related to phytosanitary status and trade. In: Shelly,T., Epsky,N., Jang,E.B., Reyes-Flores,J. and Vargas,R. Trapping and the Detection Control, and Regulation of Tephritid Fruit Flies. New York,NY: Springer Publishing. p.589-608.
Interpretive Summary: This is a chapter out of a book entitled Trapping tephritid fruit flies: Lures, area-wide programs and trade implications. The chapters of the book are all related to the use of trapping for detection , delimitation and control of these serious pests of agriculture. This chapter discusses the use of trapping and its application to international phytosanitary regulations that exist in trade and commerce. Trapping is used for both verification of the absence of flies in and area and\or to determine the relative risk where flies are established.
Technical Abstract: Detection of incipient fruit fly populations can occur through a number of means such as visual surveys, fruit cutting (to reveal the presence of immatures), collection and holding of fruits to determine if fruit flies emerge from the collected fruits and perhaps the most commonly used method, trapping of adult flies using some combination of specific trap types such as the McPhail, Multilure, Jackson, etc. and semiochemical attractant such as a food lure, pheromone, or parapheromone and kairomonal attractant. Trapping for surveillance of adult fruit flies is generally a reliable method which has as long history and been generally accepted by trading partners as a standard means to detect, delimit and monitor for tephritid fruit fly populations. Although trapping for detection remains the most effective means for detecting early introductions of invasive exotic fruit fly pests into eradicated and/or pest free areas, factors such as trap type, source and formulation of attractant, trap spacing and frequency of trap servicing all influence the reliability and effectiveness of such a system. Over the last 30 years there has been increasing interest in the “harmonization” of fruit fly detection for use in regulatory programs worldwide. This has led to the development of international standards which are discussed below and mention the use of verifiable “surveys” to detect fly presence. It is apparent that trapping serves a number of roles in the establishment and verification of phytosanitary status and maintenance of that status.