Submitted to: Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/21/2013
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: Interpretive Summary: This chapter, in a book addressing the biology of the genus Cryptosporidium, focuses on farm animals. Cryptosporidiosis was first identified as a disease of veterinary, rather than human, medical importance. Infection of farm animals with different species of Cryptosporidium continues to be of veterinary clinical concern. In this chapter insights are provided into Cryptosporidium infection in farmed animals including cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, deer, camels, llamas, alpacas, rabbits, water buffalo, and poultry. The occurrence of infection in these animals with different species of Cryptosporidium, information on clinical disease, infection dynamics, and zoonotic potential are discussed. Although extensive data have been accrued on, Cryptosporidium parvum infection in calves, there is still a paucity of data regarding other farm animals. Cryptosporidium continues to be an important pathogen causing significant clinical disease in some animal species with the potential for transmission of infection to people, either directly or indirectly. This information will be of interest to other scientists, veterinarians, and regulatory agencies.
Technical Abstract: The disease, cryptosporidiosis, has been identified in humans and animals in 106 countries and has been attributed to 26 species of Cryptosporidium and several additional genotypes. The specific farmed animals discussed in this chapter include cattle, sheep, goats, water buffaloes, deer, camels, llamas, alpacas, pigs, rabbits, chickens and turkeys. Virtually all farmed and companion animals are susceptible to infection with one or more species of Cryptosporidium, some of which are pathogenic for the animals and for humans. For example, Cryptosporidium parvum is both widely distributed and highly recognized as a pathogen in both bovines and humans. Other species of Cryptosporidium are described that are similarly identified with one or more farm animal species and humans. However, the pathogenicity and epidemiology of several species infecting farm animals remains unstudied and unknown. Transmission from farmed animals to humans is manifest through fecal contamination, either directly by close contact with the animals, or indirectly through contamination of surface water from runoff from fields or from fresh produce exposed to contaminated water or manure used for fertilizer. The chapter provides detailed information on prevalence and distribution of parasites in each host species through data provided in14 tables and from 398 references.