Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract only
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/1/2013
Publication Date: 6/18/2013
Citation: Barkley, N.L., Isleib, T., Culbreath, A. 2013. Why preserve and evaluate genetic resources in peanut?. Meeting Abstract. Advances in Arachis through Genomics and Biotechnology. No. 11. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Peanuts are produced in more than 100 countries with a total global total production in 2010 of 37,953,949 metric tons (FAO statistics, 2010). Because peanut is an important crop, it is imperative that its germplasm be preserved in order to conserve the genetic diversity and provide a resource to improve the crop for future generations. There are several centers worldwide (ICRISAT, USDA, OCRI, INTA, and EMBRAPA) that maintain peanut germplasm collections. The USDA ARS PGRCU maintains the second largest germplasm collection in the world with 9,326 cultivated and 608 wild entries. This collection has proven to be a useful resource to mine for traits to improve peanuts by identifying sources of resistance for root knot nematode, leaf spot, tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), preharvest aflatoxin, and Sclerotinia. The U.S. germplasm has also been evaluated for seed quality traits such as oil, fatty acid profiles, and flavonoids which showed a range in variation for each of these traits. The impact of germplasm is evident from an evaluation of current production lines in the U.S.A. which determined that germplasm contributed 20.6% of the ancestry of cultivars grown in 2012. One entry PI 203396 which was collected in Brazil was the source of TSWV resistance most commonly found in the ancestry of U.S. cultivars. Although genetic modifications and mutation induction are novel ways to improve peanut, more gains have been made from evaluating the range of variation in germplasm in order to make improved selections for breeding programs which can greatly impact yield, production value, and the nutritional quality of peanuts.