Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/20/2013
Publication Date: 8/19/2013
Citation: Pchelkina, I.P., Kolosov, S.B., Chvala, I.A., Andriyasov, A.V., Andreychuk, D.B., Drygin, V.V., Starov, S.K., Miller, P.J. 2013. Complete nucleotide sequences of three pigeon paramyxovirus serotype-1 (PPMV-1) isolates [abstract]. XVIIIth Congress of the World Veterinary Poultry Association Conference. CDROM. Interpretive Summary: Infections of virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus of serotype-1 (APMV-1) cause Newcastle disease in birds. The APMV-1 strains that are found in pigeons (often abbreviated PPMV-1) are adapted to growing and spreading in pigeon populations. Even though these PPMV-1 strains don’t grow as well in other birds, like chickens, they still can infect and cause disease in chickens. Because PPMV-1 have been growing and spreading in pigeon populations since the early 1980s the genetic makeup of these viruses has changed from the viruses found in other types of birds. This genetic change is called antigenic variation. Here we are reporting that we have obtained the genetic sequences for the full genetic makeup (genome) of three Russia PPMV-1 strains. When the genomes of these three PPMV-1 are compared to other PPMV-1, one (Kemerovo/05) is the same as the usual PPMV-1 and the other two (Vladimir/05 and Kemerovo/09) have changed and belong in a group of PPMV-1 that are not often found. Most interesting is that despite the Kemerovo/05 grouping with the usual PPMV-1 it contains a longer genome length (15,204 nucleotides) that has not been reported before. Changes in genome lengths are important because they can affect the ability of the virus to cause disease, and also because the changes in genome length can be used to track how the viruses are changing and spreading over time.
Technical Abstract: Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype-1 (PPMV-1) is an antigenic variant of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1), the agent responsible for Newcastle disease. Given that PPMV-1 can be transmitted to the poultry population it is important to characterize PPMV-1 in native birds. Here we report the complete genome sequences of three PPMV-1 isolates identified in Russia: Pi/Rus/Vladimir/687/05 (JF827026), Pi/Rus/Kemerovo/0267/09 (JF827027), Pi/Rus/Kemerovo/762-2/05. The isolates demonstrate two variants of amino acid sequence of fusion (F) protein cleavage site: 112KRQKR-F117 in Pi/Rus/Vladimir/687/05, Pi/Rus/Kemerovo/0267/09 isolates and 112RRQKR-F117 Pi/Rus/Kemerovo/762-2/05 isolate which are identical to a known motif for a virulent pathotype of NDV. Phylogenetic analysis of F gene encoding region demonstrated that the studied isolates belong to genotype VI, subtype VIb which caused Newcastle disease panzootia in pigeons in early 80s last century (Aldous, 2004). Further detailed analysis demonstrated that Pi/Rus/Kemerovo/762-2/05 isolate belongs to “classical pigeon” genetic group VIb/1, subtype VIb and Pi/Rus/Vladimir/687/05 and Pi/Rus/Kemerovo/0267/09 isolates belong to genetic group VIb/2, to its different clusters (geographically based up to a certain extent), subtype VIb (Ujvari, 2006). Genome length of different NDV phylogenetic lineages that are currently known is 15198, 15186 or 15192 nucleotides (Czegledi, 2006). The obtained complete nucleotide sequences of genomes of two isolates Pi/Rus/Vladimir/687/05 and Pi/Rus/Kemerovo/0267/09 correspond to total genomic length of 15192 nucleotides each. Pi/Rus/Kemerovo/762-2/05 isolate has genomic length of 15204 nucleotides that has not been described before for NDV. The difference is due to the presence of a 12-nucleotide insertion at the beginning of the genome trailer region. The insertion is an exact duplication of 12 nucleotides capturing 8 nucleotides of L gene 3'-terminal untranslated region universal for all genes including 6 poly-A nucleotides and first 4 nucleotides of trailer region. The presence of this insertion was confirmed by sequencing of two independently obtained fragments and three primers both in the forward and reverse direction.