Location: Fruit and Tree Nut ResearchTitle: Management of Meloidogyne incognita with tall fescue grass rotations prior to peach orchard establishment Author
Submitted to: American Phytopathology Society
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/13/2013
Publication Date: 6/1/2013
Citation: Nyczepir, A.P., Meyer, S.L., Brannen, P.M. 2013. Management of Meloidogyne incognita with tall fescue grass rotations prior to peach orchard establishment. American Phytopathology Society. 103(S2):104-105. Interpretive Summary: Preplant fumigant nematicides have traditionally been used to control root-knot nematodes in peach in the southeastern United States. However, in recent years growers have been faced with economic hardships which made it difficult to afford the costs associated with preplant fumigation and (or) not being able to get the land fumigated at the recommended time of year due to a conflict with managing other crops. Finding a nonchemical alternative to preplant chemical control of root-knot nematode is warranted. In 2005, a field study was initiated at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Byron, Georgia, to determine if 1- and 2-year preplant tall fescue grass rotations were comparable to preplant Telone II fumigation. Results indicate that both fescue rotations and fumigation lowered the population density of the Southern root-knot nematode infective-stage juveniles in soil compared with nonfumigated plots prior to planting peach trees. After the peach orchard was established in 2009, tree growth in 2012 and 2013 was greatest in fumigated and both fescue rotation plots and lowest in nonfumigated plots. These data provide useful insights into the potential use of tall fescue grass as an alternative to preplant chemical control of root-knot nematode prior to peach orchard establishment in the Southeast.
Technical Abstract: Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are important pests of peach in the USA. Preplant fumigant nematicides have been used to control Meloidogyne spp. associated with Southeastern peach production. Unfortunately, growers have increasingly faced economic challenges, making it difficult for them to afford application costs of preplant nematicides. Finding an alternative to control root-knot nematode is warranted. Previous greenhouse studies indicated that Jesup (Max-Q) tall fescue grass is a nonhost for M. incognita and M. hapla. In 2005, the effects of 1- and 2-yr fescue rotations for the management of M. incognita were initiated in Georgia. Prior to orchard establishment in 2009, both fescue rotations (2005-2008) and preplant Telone II (1,3-dichloropropene) fumigation (2008) suppressed (P < 0.05) populations of M. incognita J2 in soil compared with nonfumigated plots. No differences in M. incognita J2 populations were detected among the two fescue rotations and fumigated plots. In 2010, peach tree growth was greatest (P < 0.05) in fumigated and 2-yr fescue rotation plots, intermediate in 1-yr fescue rotation plots and lowest in nonfumigated plots. In 2012 and 2013, tree growth was similar among the fumigated and both fescue rotation plots and lowest (P < 0.05) in nonfumigated plots. These results provide insights into the potential use of fescue as an alternative to chemical control of M. incognita in peach.