Location: Subtropical Horticulture ResearchTitle: Susceptibility of 15 mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) cultivars to the attack by Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the role of underdeveloped fruit as pest reservoirs: management implications Author
Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/1/2014
Publication Date: 4/1/2014
Citation: Aluja, M., Arrendondo, J., Fleischer-Diaz, F., Birke, A., Rull, J., Niogret, J., Epsky, N.D. 2014. Susceptibility of 15 mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) cultivars to the attack by Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the role of underdeveloped fruit as pest reservoirs: management implications. Journal of Economic Entomology. 107(1):375-388. Interpretive Summary: The Mexican and West Indian fruit flies are two important pests of fruits that threaten to invade the continental US, where they would reduce fruit production and export if established. Host resistance is a mechanism that could be used to reduce damage potential of these pests. This would not only reduce the risk of invasion by these fruit flies into the US but also increase food security in areas in which these fruit flies are found. Therefore, scientists at SHRS in collaboration with scientists at the Instituto de Ecología, Veracruz, México and at Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA-IICA, Chiapas; México conducted research to identify mango varieties that are resistant to fruit flies and to determine the relationship between host resistance and volatile chemicals released from those fruit. They identified varieties that were susceptible and resistant to either or both flies, and determined that there are unique volatile chemical profiles that could be used to separate susceptible and resistant varieties. These results will be used to identify host-based chemicals that can be used to improve detection trapping of these fruit flies as well as to provide information to breeders that may lead to development of new resistant mango varieties. Results of this study will support decision making among growers and orchard managers in Mexico, US and other mango-growing areas regarding varietal selection and orchard design for biorational pest management.
Technical Abstract: We evaluated the susceptibility of 15 mango cultivars to the attack of Anastrepha ludens and A. obliqua, the main Tephritid pests of this crop in Mexico. In a field experiment, bagged, fruit-bearing branches were exposed to gravid females of both fly species. Infestation rates, developmental time, adult eclosion, and F1 adult longevity, fecundity and fertility were recorded ranking cultivars in terms of susceptibility to fly attack and development. We also compared the volatile profile in selected resistant and susceptible cultivars in search of possible correlations. In a second experiment, clutch size for A. ludens was determined in each cultivar. In addition, population fluctuations of both fly species were determined during the season, along with infestation rates in the 42 cultivars found in the experimental orchard. Infestation rates, developmental time and F1 demographic parameters varied sharply among cultivars and between fly species for bagged fruit. Cultivars Vishi, 74-82, and Brooks were most susceptible to A. ludens infestation while Tommy, Sensation and Ataulfo “niño” (parthenocarpic fruit) were most susceptible to A. obliqua infestation. Edward, Kent, Brooks late, Palmer, and Ataulfo exhibited tolerance to attack of both fly species. Fruit of susceptible and resistant cultivars exhibited unique volatile profiles. Fly development and F1 adult demographic parameters varied significantly among cultivars. A. ludens females laid larger clutches in larger and harder fruit. Natural infestations were low, but confirmed the high susceptibility of cultivar Vishi to fly attack and the important role as pest reservoir of Ataulfo “niño” if fruit is left unharvested on trees. We discuss the possible use of highly resistant cultivars as trap crops or egg sinks.