Location: Agroecosystems Management ResearchTitle: Effects of feeding diets containing highly peroxidized dried distillers grains with solubles and increasing vitamin E levels to wean-finish pigs on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork fat composition) Author
Submitted to: Journal of Animal Science
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/15/2013
Publication Date: 1/1/2014
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/58827
Citation: Song, R., Chen, C., Johnston, L., Kerr, B.J., Weber, T., Shurson, G. 2014. Effects of feeding diets containing highly peroxidized dried distillers grains with solubles and increasing vitamin E levels to wean-finish pigs on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork fat composition. Journal of Animal Science. 92:198-210. Interpretive Summary: The use of dried distillers grains with solubles in swine diets has increased dramatically in recent years due to its cost competitiveness compared with corn and soybean meal. However, lipids contained in dried distillers grains with solubles may be partially peroxidized which may impact animal health and growth performance. It is unknown if this negative impact can be alleviated by increasing the levels of dietary vitamin E. The results of the current study indicate that feeding diets that contain 30% highly peroxidized dried distillers grains with solubles to growing pigs reduced pig performance and the supplementation of additional vitamin E in the diet did not counteract these effects. This information is important for nutritionists at universities, feed companies, and swine production operations in the understandng how lipid peroxidation can affect animal performance and the inability of additional vitamin E to overcome these negative effects, thereby improving their understanding on how to feed dried distillers grains with solubles to growing pigs.
Technical Abstract: Lipid peroxidation in animal feed can negatively affect growth performance and meat quality. Weanling pigs (n = 432; BW = 6.6 ± 0.4 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of feeding a peroxidized dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) source with three levels of vitamin E (a-tocopheryl acetate) on growth performance, carcass composition, fatty acid composition of pork fat, and lipid peroxidation in LM. The DDGS source used in this study contained the highest thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, peroxide value, and total S content (5.2 ng/mg oil, 84.1 meq/kg oil, and 0.95%, respectively) among 30 DDGS sources sampled. Pens within blocks were assigned randomly to one of six dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial design. Pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal (CON) or 30% peroxidized DDGS (Ox-DDGS) diets with three levels of vitamin E: none supplemented (No-E), NRC (1X-E), or 10X NRC (10X-E). Compared to CON, inclusion of 30% Ox-DDGS in diets reduced (P < 0.001) final BW (110 vs. 107 kg), overall ADG (0.76 vs. 0.74 kg/d), and G:F (0.39 vs. 0.37). Increasing dietary vitamin E concentrations improved G:F (P = 0.03) of pigs fed 10X-E and 1X-E vs. No-E diets (0.39 and 0.39 vs. 0.38, respectively). Hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, backfat depth, and LM area were reduced (P < 0.01) in pigs fed Ox-DDGS compared to CON, but percentage of fat-free carcass lean was not affected. Feeding OX-DDGS increased (P < 0.001) PUFA concentration, particularly linoleic acid (P < 0.001), and iodine value (P < 0.001) in belly fat and backfat compared to pigs fed CON. Dietary vitamin E levels did not significantly affect fatty acid profiles in belly or back fat. Loin muscle TBARS was measured to determine the lipid peroxidation level in pork loins. Although pigs were fed a Ox-DDGS source in this study, TBARS in LM were similar between Ox-DDGS and CON treatments. There was no interaction between Ox-DDGS and dietary vitamin E concentration in LM TBARS. Alpha-tocopherol concentration in LM was higher (P < 0.001) in 10X-E than No-E or 1X-E dietary treatments. Compared to CON, feeding OX-DDGS increased a-tocopherol concentration in LM of pigs fed No-E (1.0 vs. 3.1 mg/kg, P = 0.005), but not in those fed 1X-E or 10X-E. These results indicate that feeding diets that contain 30% highly Ox-DDGS to wean-finish pigs may negatively affect growth performance, but supplementation of additional vitamin E in the diet did not counteract these effects.