Submitted to: Agriculture
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/26/2013
Publication Date: 3/14/2013
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/58753
Citation: Morris, J.B., Wang, M.L., Grusak, M.A., Tonnis, B.D. 2013. Fatty acid, flavonol, and mineral composition variability among seven macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) verdc. accessions. Agriculture 2013. 3(1):157-169. Interpretive Summary: Horse gram seeds contain various amounts of health promoting chemicals and nutrients for use as a functional food crop in hunger stricken and nutrient deprived people. Horse gram samples conserved at the USDA, ARS repository were evaluated for fatty acids, flavonols, and minerals. Several fatty acids, flavonols, and mineral concentrations varied among seven horse gram accessions. Several of these horse gram accessions could be used as a health vegetable in the southern U.S.A. and could be used in breeding programs to develop superior varieties containing specific concentrations of fatty acids, flavonols, and minerals.
Technical Abstract: Horse gram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.] seeds containing high concentrations of fatty acids, flavonols and minerals will provide government, public and private organizations with a nutritious and healthy food for use by malnourished and food deprived people worldwide. Seeds from seven horse gram accessions, geographically adapted to Griffin, GA, USA were analyzed for fatty acid, flavonol, and mineral concentrations using gas chromatography, reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, respectively. Significant year effects occurred for stearic, oleic, linoleic, arachidic, gadoleic, and lignoceric acids. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acid ranged from 9 – 17%, 40 – 46%, and 12 – 14%, respectively, as percent of total fatty acids measured (total oil ranged from 2.32% to 2.87%). Seed concentrations of myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol ranged from 0 – 36 µg/g DW, 0 – 27 µg/g DW, and 240 – 316 µg/g DW, respectively and the only year effect was observed for kaempferol among the horse gram accessions. Year effects were found for Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, and S. Mean concentrations of macrominerals (Ca, K, Mg, P, and S) and microminerals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn) ranged from 1.3 – 14 mg/g DW, and 1.0 – 95.0 µg/g DW, respectively. Several correlations were observed among several fatty acids, flavonols, and minerals. These seven horse gram accessions can be used in breeding programs to facilitate the production of superior cultivars with favorable fatty acid profiles, flavonol content, and mineral compositions.