Location: Nutrient Data LaboratoryTitle: Nutrient database improvement project: Separable components and proximate composition of raw and cooked retail cuts from the beef rib and plate Author
Submitted to: Journal of Meat Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/20/2013
Publication Date: 5/21/2013
Citation: Martin, J.N., Brooks, J.C., Thompson, L.J., Savell, J.W., Harris, K.B., May, L.L., Haneklaus, A.N., Schutz, J.L., Belk, K.E., Engle, T.E., Woerener, D.R., Legako, J.F., Luna, A.M., Douglass, L.W., Douglass, S.E., Howe, J., Duvall, M., Patterson, K.Y., Leheska, J.L. 2013. Nutrient database improvement project: Separable components and proximate composition of raw and cooked retail cuts from the beef rib and plate. Journal of Meat Science. 95:486-494. Interpretive Summary: Beef nutrition is very important to the worldwide beef industry and its consumers. Constantly changing production practices, product development, cooking methods, and marketing strategies have resulted in existing nutrient data needing to be updated. In order to provide accurate information to consumers and industry, the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association and the USDA Agricultural Research Service collaborated with meat scientists to conduct a comprehensive beef research study. The objective of this study was to analyze nutrient composition of eight beef rib and plate retail cuts to update the nutrient data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Protein content (g/100 g) of raw and cooked beef retail cuts from the rib and plate, as influenced by USDA Quality Grade, was greater in cooked versus raw retail cuts. Generally, protein content in raw cuts increased (P < 0.05) as the presence of intramuscular fat (USDA Quality Grade) decreased. Overall, USDA Quality Grade and total fat content of the separable lean from cooked and raw retail beef cuts were linearly related—as quality grade increased, total fat content (g/100 g) also increased (P < 0.05). For all raw retail cuts, separable lean from Upper Choice carcasses had a greater fat content (P < 0.05) than similar USDA Select cuts. An inverse relationship between total moisture content and USDA Quality Grade was observed for all raw retail cuts except the outside skirt steak. Among cooked cuts, USDA Select products had a greater moisture content (P < 0.05) than cuts from USDA Choice carcasses. A similar inverse relationship between USDA Quality Grade and moisture content was noted for all cooked cuts except the inside and outside skirt steaks. For ash content, of all raw retail cuts, only those derived from the bone-in rib and outside skirt were influenced by USDA Quality Grade, in which case ash content was greater (P < 0.05) in cuts derived from USDA Select versus USDA Choice carcasses. As a result of this study, nutrient and composition data were generated and subsequently released in SR for each of the eight cuts for select and choice grades, both raw and cooked. The data are available at http://www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata. Not only do these data provide updated information regarding the nutrient content of beef, but they also emphasize the influence of common classification systems (yield grade and quality grade) on the separable components, cooking yield, and proximate composition of retail beef cuts. Results of this study will serve to further increase the understanding of beef composition as influenced by USDA Quality Grade and Yield Grade, and should assist with retail labeling requirements for beef. Previous evaluations of beef composition, cooking yield, and separable components, had not considered the variety of retail presentations available to both domestic U.S. and international consumers. However, an evaluation of these traits provides consumers, trade groups, and government organizations with information which accurately depicts not only current retail presentation trends, but also reflects current practices in beef production and the increased emphasis placed on the production of lean, nutritious beef.
Technical Abstract: Beef nutrition is very important to the worldwide beef industry and its consumers. The objective of this study was to analyze nutrient composition of eight beef rib and plate cuts to update the nutrient data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Seventy-two carcasses representing a composite of yield grade, quality grade, gender and genetic type were identified from six regions across the U.S. Whole beef plates and ribs (IMPS #109 and 121C and D) were collected from the selected carcasses and shipped to three university meat laboratories for storage, retail fabrication, cooking, and dissection and analysis of proximate composition. Not only do these data provide updated information regarding the nutrient content of beef, but they also emphasize the influence of common classification systems (yield grade and quality grade) on the separable components, cooking yield, and proximate composition of retail beef cuts.