Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/3/2013
Publication Date: 5/31/2013
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/58707
Citation: Hallman, G.J., Myers, S.W., El-Wakkad, M.F., Tadrous, M.D., Jessup, A.J. 2013. Development of phytosanitary cold treatments for oranges infested with Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) by comparison with existing cold treatment schedules for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 106(4):1608-1612. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EC13066. Interpretive Summary: A new invasive fruit fly attacking a wide variety of fruits has been described in Africa (Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White). It is rapidly spreading throughout central Africa and threatens other continents. As part of management strategies, phytosanitary treatments are needed. Cold treatments were attempted for B. invadens and another invasive fruit fly for which treatments are lacking, Bactrocera zonata, by comparison with the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), for which cold treatments exist. Oranges were infested by puncturing holes in the peel and allowing the flies to oviposit there. Results show that B. invadens is less cold tolerant than Medfly and B. zonata at 1.0±0.1°C and lend support to the use of Medfly cold treatments for B. invadens. It cannot be concluded that Medfly cold treatments could be used against B. zonata because B. zonata could be more cold tolerant than Medfly.
Technical Abstract: Phytosanitary cold treatments are attempted for Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White and Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) by comparison with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Oranges were infested by puncturing holes in the peel and allowing tephritids to oviposit in the holes. The treatments were initiated when the larvae reached late 3rd instar because previous research had shown that stage to be the most cold-tolerant for all three species. Results show that B. invadens is less cold tolerant than C. capitata and B. zonata at 1.0±0.1°C and lend support to the use of C. capitata cold treatment schedules for B. invadens. It cannot be concluded that B. zonata is not more cold-tolerant than C. capitata; hence, C. capitata cold treatment schedules are not supported for phytosanitary use against B. zonata.