Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/19/2012
Publication Date: 1/13/2014
Citation: Wise, M.L. 2014. Avenanthramides: chemistry and biosynthesis. In: Chu, Y-F, editor. Oats, Nutrition and Technology. Oxford, UK: Wiley Blackwell. p.195-222.
Technical Abstract: Avenanthramides are secondary metabolites produced in oat (and possibly in carnation) that function as phytoalexins (antimicrobial compounds) in the plant. They also possess potent anti-oxidant properties and have also shown several interesting nutraceutical properties in laboratory tests. This book chapter describes the chemistry and biosynthesis of avenanthramides in oat. Included is a short history of the discovery of the avenanthramides and a description of the multiple nomenclatures currently in use to delineate these compounds. The chemical synthesis of the common avenanthramides is briefly described as well as the structure function activities related to their anti-oxidant properties. A detailed description of the metabolic pathways leading to the avenanthramides is provided. Also covered are environmental factors regulating the production of the avenanthramides in both the vegetative tissue and the grain and the relationship of these processes to crown rust infection. Recent developments in enhancing avenanthramide production, including treatment of the plants with commercial plant defense activators as well as the newly developed process of “false malting” of oat grain, are described.