Location: Bioenergy ResearchTitle: Combination of borax and quebracho condensed tannins treatment to reduce hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored swine manure Author
Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/1/2013
Publication Date: 4/5/2013
Citation: Yokoyama, M., Whitehead, T.R., Spence, C., Cotta, M.A., Penner, D., Hengemuehle, S., Michael, J. 2013. Combination of borax and quebracho condensed tannins treatment to reduce hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored swine manure [abstract]. Waste to Worth: "Spreading" Science & Solutions. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Livestock producers are acutely aware for the need to reduce gaseous emissions from stored livestock waste and have been trying to identify new technologies to address the chronic problem. Besides the malodor issue, toxic gases emitted from stored livestock manure, especially hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) are environmental and health hazards for humans and animals and under scrutiny by the Environmental Protection Agency for regulatory control of concentrated animal farm operations (CAFOs). These odorous and toxic gases are produced by bacteria during the fermentation of the stored manure. Sulfate reducing bacteria convert sulfate (SO4) to sulfide (H2S) during the fermentation. During storage of swine manure, about 60% of NH3 nitrogen is also loss. If NH3 loss can be prevented, the fertilizer value of swine manure would improve and reduce the need for additional commercial nitrogen fertilizer. There are very few technologies available to reduce H2S, NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions from stored livestock manure, which meet the criteria of being: inexpensive, safe for farmers and animals, and environmentally sustainable. Previous research has shown that borax and quebracho condensed tannin are effective in inhibiting H2S production in stored swine manure. The present research demonstrates that a combination of borax and quebracho condensed tannin is highly effective in reducing all gaseous emissions (H2S, NH3, CO2, CO, N2O and CH4 ) and in retaining more nitrogen in swine manure. Lesser amounts of borax and quebracho condensed tannin are needed when combined to achieve a similar reduction in H2S production to using much larger amounts of either product alone. Phytotoxicity studies show that the level of tolerance of crops to borax-tannin combination treated swine manure is: alfalfa > corn > wheat > soybean >> dry beans. Quebracho condensed tannin does not appear to be toxic to crops.