Submitted to: Diseases of Poultry
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/1/2012
Publication Date: 10/14/2013
Citation: Zsak, L. 2013. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys. In: Swayne, D.E., Glisson, J.R., McDougald, L.R., Nolan, L.K., Suarez, D.L., Nair, V.L., editors. Diseases of Poultry. 13th edition. Ames, IA:Wiley-Blackwell in partnership with the American Association of Avian Pathologists. p. 399-405.
Interpretive Summary: The members of the Parvoviridae family, of which the chicken and turkey parvoviruses are a part, infect vertebrates and invertebrates and are transmitted both horizontally and vertically. Parvoviruses infect numerous species of birds, including many species of domesticated birds. Parvovirus infection in avian species is frequently associated with outbreaks of diarrhea in poultry, and is often found in association with a recognized enteric disease syndrome such as runting-stunting syndrome in poultry. The economic impact of parvovirus-associated enteric disease to the poultry industry is not clear, but non-specific enteric disease with possible viral cause is an ongoing industry burden. This chapter outlines the etiology, classification, and pathogenicity of the chicken and turkey parvoviruses.
Technical Abstract: Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy during the early 1980s. Since then, parvoviruses have been detected in cases of enteric diseases of poultry, in association of cerebellar hypoplasia in day-old broilers, and in fecal samples of wild turkeys. In the past few years, the complete genome sequence of the chicken and turkey parvoviruses has been determined, diagnostic assays were developed and used to determine the prevalence of parvoviruses in the poultry industry. It has been documented that parvoviruses can be frequently detected in chickens and turkeys from flocks that have been affected by enteric diseases. Pathogenicity studies indicate that chicken and turkey parvoviruses induce typical enteric diseases in susceptible young birds. Although the exact economic significance of parvovirus infections has not been determined, data suggest that they play a significant role in the etiology of enteric disease syndromes of poultry, including runting-stunting syndrome of broilers and poult enteritis and mortality syndrome of turkey poults. Chicken and turkey parvoviruses have no known public health significance.