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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Systems to Assess, Monitor, and Preserve Peanut Quality and Safety

Location: Peanut Research

Title: Evaluation of peanut fatty acid methyl ester sprays, combustion, and emissions, for use in an indirect injection diesel engine

item Soloiu, Valentin
item Weaver, Jabeous
item Ochieng, Henry
item Vlcek, Brian
item Butts, Christopher - Chris
item Jansons, Marcis

Submitted to: Energy and Fuels
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/15/2013
Publication Date: 4/26/2013
Publication URL:
Citation: Soloiu, V., Weaver, J., Ochieng, H., Vlcek, B., Butts, C.L., Jansons, M. 2013. Evaluation of peanut fatty acid methyl ester sprays, combustion, and emissions, for use in an indirect injection diesel engine. Energy and Fuels. 27:2608-2618. doi: 10.1021/ef302069d.

Interpretive Summary: The paper compares of peanut biodiesel combustion, emissions, and performance characteristics to that of ultra-low sulfur diesel No. 2 (ULSD#2) in a three-cylinder indirect injection diesel engine. Tests were conducted at various speeds using peanut biodiesel blended with ULSD32 in mixtures ranging from 20 to 50% biodiesel. The maximum in-cylinder instantaneous gas combustion temperature reached about 2100K. Using a 50% biodiesel blend resulted in an average 7% increase in fuel consumption when compared to ULSD#2. Emissions of NOx and soot when using the peanut biodiesel was similar to that measured when using ULSD#2. These combustion analyses demonstrated that the indirect injection diesel engine tolerated peanut biodiesel blends up to 50% and would be a suitable engine for auxiliary power units.

Technical Abstract: The paper provides an analysis of 100% peanut fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and peanut FAME/ULSD#2 blends (P20, P35, and P50) in an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine (for auxiliary power unit applications) in comparison to ultralow sulfur diesel no. 2 (ULSD#2) at various speeds and 100% load. From the fuel thermal and physical properties, it was determined that up to 50% peanut FAMEs blended with ULSD#2 (P50) would meet the ASTM D6751 fuel standard for viscosity. The ignition delay was in the range of 1 ms, and the apparent heat release presented similar values for all investigated fuels. The maximum cylinder instantaneous gas combustion temperature reached about 2100 K while the total heat flux was 1.95 MW/m2, and it was found that there was a 7% average increase in brake specific fuel consumption for P50 over ULSD#2. The mechanical efficiency for ULSD#2 and all of the tested FAMEs was around 77%, with 10% loss in overall engine efficiency for FAMEs compared with ULSD#2. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions of the FAMEs, with an average value of 1.8 g/kWh and soot values with an average value of 0.15 g/kWh displayed very similar results with that of ULSD#2. Combustion analysis demonstrated the high tolerance of the IDI engine to various peanut FAME blends with results being similar to ULSD#2 and proved the suitability of this combination of fuel-engine for auxiliary power unit applications.

Last Modified: 10/17/2017
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