Location: Children's Nutrition Research CenterTitle: The genome sequence of taurine cattle: A window to ruminant biology and evolution Author
Submitted to: Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/16/2009
Publication Date: 4/24/2009
Citation: The Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium, Elsik, C.G., Tellam, R.L., Worley, K.C. 2009. The genome sequence of taurine cattle: A window to ruminant biology and evolution. Science. 324(5926):522-528. Interpretive Summary: To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced. This paper presents the complete sequence and annotation of the cow genome, and this is discussed in terms of various features and then compared to other species. The information presented here is important because it provides a catalogue of the genes that make up the cow genome. Researchers can use this information in future studies to gain a better understanding of the development and normal physiology of the cow.
Technical Abstract: To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher density of segmental duplications, enrichment of repetitive elements, and species-specific variations in genes associated with lactation and immune responsiveness. Genes involved in metabolism are generally highly conserved, although five metabolic genes are deleted or extensively diverged from their human orthologs. The cattle genome sequence thus provides a resource for understanding mammalian evolution and accelerating livestock genetic improvement for milk and meat production.