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Title: Persistence of increased adiposity in parenterally fed neonatal pigs

item Burrin, Douglas - Doug
item STOLL, BARBARA - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item FIOROTTO, MARTA - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item EL-KADI, SAMER - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)

Submitted to: Pediatric Research
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/12/2012
Publication Date: 7/12/2012
Citation: Burrin, D.G., Stoll, B., Fiorotto, M.L., El-Kadi, S.W. 2012. Persistence of increased adiposity in parenterally fed neonatal pigs [abstract]. Pediatric Research. E-PAS2012:1335.7.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: The nutritional environment during fetal and neonatal life is a key determinant affecting the risk for adult-onset diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Studies show that preterm infants experience increased risk for glucose intolerance as adolescents and young adults. Preterm infants often receive parenteral nutrition for several days or weeks after birth as a lifesaving form of clinical support. We previously reported (J. Nutr. 140:2193) that chronic parenteral (PN) compared to enteral (EN) nutrition in neonatal pigs for two weeks leads to an adverse metabolic phenotype marked by increased glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, body fat deposition and hepatic steatosis. Our aim was to test whether glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and fat deposition in the liver and body induced by PN during the neonatal period persist into late infancy and adolescence. Term newborn pigs, were fed PN or EN (N=12/group) for 2 wk, followed by ad lib feeding of a high-fat (30%) and sucrose (20%) diet for 5 mon. Body composition was measured by dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry at 2 wk, 8 wk, and 5 mon, and serum chemistry and fasting intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT; 1 g glucose/kg x sample 90 min) were obtained at 5 mon. At 2 and 8 wk of age, body weight was similar, but % body fat (%BF) was higher and % lean was lower in PN vs EN pigs. At 5 mon, there were no differences in serum markers of liver injury (ALT, AST, GGT) or lipidemia (triglycerides, cholesterol). However, the IVGTT results for the 90-min area-under-curve (AUC) for both glucose (mmol/L*min) and insulin (nmol/L*min) were lower (p<0.05) in PN than EN pigs, but the ratio of AUC insulin:glucose was not different between groups. We conclude that PN during the neonatal period increased adiposity transiently into early infancy but PN-induced glucose intolerance and adiposity were not sustained into adolescence even when challenged with an obesogenic diet.