Submitted to: Insects
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/26/2012
Publication Date: 8/10/2012
Citation: Vargas, R.I., Leblanc, L., Harris, E.J., Manoukis, N. 2012. Regional suppression of Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the Pacific through biological control and prospects for future introductions into other areas of the world. Insects. 3(3):727-742. Available: doi:10.3390/insects3030727 Interpretive Summary: Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pests attacking soft fruits worldwide. The Bactrocera genus is particularly important and are well-documented invaders and rank high on quarantine lists worldwide with recent introductions into South America and Africa. The USDA-ARS Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. This paper reviews 1) past and recent biological control work in Hawaii and French Polynesia, particularly with respect to the Bactrocera species, 2) summarize the introductions throughout the region, 3) summarize successes and failures, 4) summarize rearing and release methods for future introductions, and 5) comment on prospects for future introductions into other parts of the world. Establishment of natural enemies of invasive tephritid fly pests may have significant and beneficial impacts in regards otherwise lacking in natural enemies. Previous results support introduction of natural enemies into South America and Africa, where Bactrocera species have recently become established.
Technical Abstract: Bactrocera fruit fly species are important economically throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS, U.S Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world wide leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of B. cucurbitae in 1995 resulted in introduction of the most successful parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri; similarly, establishment of B. dorsalis in 1945 resulted in introduction of 32 natural enemies of which Fopius arisanus, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata and F. vandenboschi were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anstrepha species. Most recently, in 2002, F. arisanus was introduced into French Polynesia where B. dorsalis had invaded in 1996. Establishment of D. longicaudata into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against Anastrepha spp. With rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade, there has been an alarming spread of Bactrocera spp, into new areas of the world (i.e. South America and Africa). Results of studies in Hawaii and more recently, French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where B. carambolae Drew and Hancock and B. invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White, respectively, have become established. In addition, P. fletcheri (Silvestri) is a candidate for biological control of B. cucurbitae in Africa. We review past and more recent successes against Bactrocera spp. and related tephritids and outline simple rearing and release methods to facilitate this goal.