Submitted to: United States Animal Health Association Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/21/2012
Publication Date: 12/30/2012
Citation: Swayne, D.E. 2012. Low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza (LPNAI) with an emphasis on vaccination programs [abstract]. Proceedings of 116th Annual Meeting of the U.S. Animal Health Association, Greensboro, North Carolina, October 21-24,2012. p.268. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: There have been 30 epizootics of H5 or H7 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) from 1959 to early 2012. The largest has been the H5N1 HPAI which began in Guangdong China in 1996, and has affected over 250 million poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries. For most countries, stamping-out programs have been used in poultry to eradicate HPAI. However, 15 affected countries have utilized vaccination as a part of the control strategy. Greater than 113 billion doses were used from 2002-2010; 95.5% inactivated and 4.5% recombinant live vaccines. Mongolia, Kazakhstan, France, The Netherlands, Cote d’Ivoire, Sudan, North Korea, Israel, Russia, and Pakistan used <1% of the AI vaccine, and vaccination was targeted to preventive or emergency use. Five countries have utilized nationwide routine vaccination programs, accounting for 99% of vaccine use: 1) China (90.9%), 2) Egypt (4.6%), 3) Indonesia (2.3%), 4) Vietnam (1.4%), and 5) Hong Kong SAR (<0.01%). Six countries have enzootic H5N1 HPAI: 1) China, Indonesia, Egypt and Indonesia implemented vaccination after H5N1 HPAI became enzootic in poultry, and 2) Bangladesh and eastern India have enzootic H5N1 HPAI without vaccination. Vaccine use has prevented clinical disease and mortality, reduced human cases, and maintained rural livelihoods and food security. However, field outbreaks have occurred in vaccinating enzootic countries primarily because of inadequate coverage in the target species, but also some instances of vaccine failures following antigenic drift of field viruses. The primary strategy for HPAI and H5/H7 LPNAI control will continue to be immediate eradication by a four component strategy: 1) education, 2) biosecurity, 3) rapid diagnostics and surveillance, and 4) elimination of infected poultry. Vaccination can be a second tier component or ‘tool’ when immediate eradication is not feasible.