|Lee, Doo hyung|
Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/21/2012
Publication Date: 2/15/2013
Citation: Lee, D., Wright, S.E., Leskey, T.C. 2013. Impact of insecticide residue exposure on the invasive pest, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): analysis of adult mobility. Journal of Economic Entomology. 106(1):150-158. Interpretive Summary: The invasive pest, brown marmorated stink bug, causes serious agricultural and nuisance problems. There have been continuous efforts to develop and enhance spray programs against stink bug mainly relying on the use of pyrethroids and organophosphates. However, many materials do not immediately incapacitate or kill the brown marmorated stink bug; and moreover, the bugs have been often found to recover from the insecticide exposure. For this reason, it is crucial to evaluate behavioral changes of the bugs including their mobility after the insecticide applications in the context of IPM programs. We tested 28 insecticides in this study to evaluate how the materials affect horizontal and vertical movement pattern, and capacity of the bugs. The results indicate that pyrethroid insecticides induced almost immediately uncoordinated and irregular movement on the insecticide residues in which most adults were incapacitated within 1.5 h. By contrast, there was no immediate stimulation when the bugs were introduced on organophosphate residues but the materials; in general, resulted in increasing irregular walking patterns after 1.5 h. Vertical climbing capacity of adult H. halys was measured immediately after the 4.5-h insecticide exposure period and at 7 d. It is notable that adults that survived until day seven were able to climb vertical distances similar to those in the water control. These behavioral changes should be taken into account in order to better use the insecticide in the context of IPM programs.
Technical Abstract: Twenty-eight insecticides were evaluated in the laboratory to characterize the impact of specific compounds on locomotory behavior and mobility of adult Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Horizontal distance and angular velocity were measured for individuals exposed to dry insecticide residue for 4.5 h to evaluate how quickly and intensely a given insecticide induced changes in motor activities in no-choice glass arenas. Eight out of nine pyrethroid insecticides induced uncoordinated and irregular movement within 10-min after exposure to insecticides. After 1.5 h, most adults were incapacitated. By contrast, there was no immediate stimulation when H. halys were introduced on organophosphate residues. After 1.5 h, four out of seven organophosphates resulted in increasing horizontal distance moved and angular velocity indicating irregular walking paths from exposed adults. Carbamate and neonicotinoid insecticides produced fairly similar patterns with virtually no stimulation in horizontal distance moved or angular velocity, except for imidacloprid and thiacloprid. Neither endosulfan (organochlorine) nor indoxacarb (oxadiazine) affected the horizontal movement of H. halys. Vertical distance climbed by adult H. halys was measured immediately after the 4.5-h insecticide exposure period and at 7 d. In general, adults that survived until day seven were able to climb vertical distances similar to those in the control. In particular, this result was observed for seven out of nine pyrethroid materials that incapacitated all adults after the 4.5-h exposure period. Mobility changes of adult H. halys are discussed in the context of enhancing integrated pest management programs.