Submitted to: Environmental Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/14/2013
Publication Date: 6/1/2013
Citation: Jordan, T.A., Zhang, A., Pfeiffer, D.G. 2013. Blend chemistry and field attraction of commercial pheromone lures for monitoring grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in vineyards. Environmental Entomology. 42(3):558-563. Interpretive Summary: The grape berry moth is the major insect pest of grapes and is distributed in the eastern United States and Canada, causing serious damage. Fruit loss can be up to 90 percent if vineyards are left unmanaged. Until the present time, grape berry moth control has depended on insecticide application. However, the timing of chemical spray is particularly important to prevent grape berry moth egg laying and hatch. Attractive chemical (pheromone) traps are available to monitor the emergence of male grape berry moths during the season, which are useful for optimal spray timing. Grape berry moth pheromone lures from four manufacturers were evaluated for pheromone purity and attraction efficacy of grape berry moth and a non-target moth in Virginia vineyards for two years. Optimized pheromone ratios, amount to load, and type of dispenser have been determined. These findings are useful for researchers, growers, and pheromone manufactures for effective grape berry moth pest management strategies, including improved pheromone formulation, optimized insecticide spray timing, reduced amount of insecticide application, prevention of damage in areas heavily infested by grape berry moth, and reduced impact on natural enemies in vineyard habitats.
Technical Abstract: Grape berry moth pheromone lures from four manufacturers, Alpha Scents, Inc. (West Linn, OR), ISCA Technologies (Riverside, CA), Suterra (Bend, OR), and Trécé, Inc. (Adair, OK), were evaluated for purity and efficacy of attracting grape berry moth and a non-target torticid moth in vineyards. The percentage of chemical components from a set of eight lures was found using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and confirmation by chemical standards. No lures adhered to the 9:1 blend of Z9-12:Ac to Z11-14:Ac, and an antagonistic impurity, E9-12:Ac, was found in all manufacturers. Field attraction studies were done in summer 2010, and again in 2011, and pheromone lures were evaluated for their potential to attract Paralobesia viteana and Episimus argutanus in the presence of competing lures. Separate experiments with the same methodology were completed in two ‘Concord’ grape vineyards situated approximately 4 km apart in Augusta County, Virginia. The experiments were established in two vineyards, one with open and the other with wooded surroundings. Trap counts of the target insects were made weekly, and probability of catch differences between the four lure manufacturers were evaluated using logistic regression. In field trials, Suterra lures attracted more P. viteana, Trécé lures attracted more E. argutanus, and ISCA lures were least attractive to P. viteana in the open vineyard, while Alpha Scents lures were least attractive to E. argutanus in both environments. Fewer P. viteana were captured in the wooded versus open vineyard, which may limit the potential for pheromone monitoring of P. viteana in wooded vineyards.