Location: Food and Feed Safety ResearchTitle: Comparison of nitroethane, 2-nitro-1-propanol, lauric acid, Lauricidin and the Hawaiian marine algae, Chaetoceros, for potential broad-spectrum control of anaerobically grown lactic acid bacteria) Author
Submitted to: Journal of Environmental Science and Health
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/7/2011
Publication Date: 3/19/2012
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/57220
Citation: Bozic, A.K., Anderson, R.C., Ricke, S.C., Crandall, P.G., O'Bryan, C.A. 2012. Comparison of nitroethane, 2-nitro-1-propanol, lauric acid, Lauricidin and the Hawaiian marine algae, Chaetoceros, for potential broad-spectrum control of anaerobically grown lactic acid bacteria. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B. 47:269-274. Interpretive Summary: The gastrointestinal tract of animals often contains foodborne or opportunistic human pathogens. There is a need to develop broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapies that are effective, while not leading to unacceptably long antibiotic withdrawal times or promoting the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this study, we tested the effects of several potential inhibitors of microbial growth. The inhibitors tested were the synthetic chemicals nitroethane and 2-nitro-1-propanol, the free or glycerol-bound forms of the natural fatty acid lauric acid, and a finely ground product of the Hawaiian marine algae, Chaetoceros. Results showed that when tested against pure and mixed cultures of some hardy opportunistic bacterial pathogens, the free and glycerol-bound forms of the natural fatty acid lauric acid were most inhibitory. These results suggest potential animal health and food safety benefits from supplementing animal diets with free lauric acid or its glycerol-bound form. Ultimately, this information can be used to help livestock growers produce safe and wholesome meat and milk for the American consumer.
Technical Abstract: The gastrointestinal tract of bovines often contains bacteria that contribute to disorders of the rumen and may also contain foodborne or opportunistic human pathogens as well as bacteria capable of causing mastitis in cows. Thus, there is a need to develop broad-spectrum therapies that are effective while not leading to unacceptably long antibiotic withdrawal times. The effects of the CH4-inhibitors nitroethane (2 mg/mL), 2-nitro-1-propanol (2 mg/mL), lauric acid (5 mg/mL), the commercial product Lauricidin® (5 mg/mL), and a finely ground product of the Hawaiian marine algae, Chaetoceros (10 mg/mL), were compared in pure cultures of Streptococcus agalactia, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus bovis, and in a mixed lactic acid rumen bacterial culture. Lauricidin® and lauric acid exhibited the most bactericidal acidity against all bacteria. These results suggest potential animal health benefits from supplementing cattle diets with lauric acid or Lauricidin® to improve the health of the rumen and help prevent shedding of human pathogens.