Location: Mosquito and Fly ResearchTitle: Vector-borne infectious diseases and influenza) Author
|Linthicum, Kenneth - Ken|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/1/2012
Publication Date: 12/17/2012
Citation: Kiang, R.K., Soebiyanto, R.P., Grieco, J.P., Achee, N.L., Harrington, L.C., Reisen, W.K., Anyamba, A., Linthicum, K., Pinzon, J.C., Zollner, G., Colacicco-Mayhugh, M. 2012. Vector-borne infectious diseases and influenza. In: Morain, S.A. and Budge, A.M., editors. Environmental tracking for Public health Surveillance. London: Taylor and Francis Group. p. 21-86. Interpretive Summary: Rift Valley fever is a virus disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. The disease causes significant sickness and death in animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East. We have discovered that prolonged and heavy rainfall can cause an outbreak of disease. This discovery has allowed us to develop a risk monitoring and mapping system to warn people that an outbreak is likely to occur. This early warning capability permits people to avoid high risk areas, and governments to implement disease control activities that can included mosquito control, animal quarantine and vaccination of animals.
Technical Abstract: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930 subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health and national economies, and it is of concern to the international agricultural and public health community. Disease outbreaks have been closely linked to unusually heavy rainfall caused by global climate variability. Concurrent elevation in equatorial eastern-central Pacific and western equatorial Indian Ocean sea surface tem-peratures (SSTs), associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena, produce above normal and widespread rainfall in the Horn of Africa and is the primary ecological cause of RVF outbreaks in the region. Retrospective analyses of satellite de-rived time series of vegetations measurements of photosynthetic activity, known as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), in combination with other climate vari-ables such as cloudiness, rainfall, and SSTs can be used to map areas with a potential for RVF outbreaks. This system, which focuses on sub-Saharan Africa, the Nile Basin in Egypt, and the western Arabian Peninsula, has been shown to be an important tool for local, national and international organizations involved in the prevention and control of animal and human disease. The risk monitoring and mapping system permits focused and timely implementation of disease control strategies several months before an out-break. If used appropriately this would allow for timely, targeted implementation of mosquito control, animal quarantine, vaccine strategies, and public education to reduce or prevent animal and human disease.