Location: Soil and Water Management ResearchTitle: Solid or hollow: which core cultivation method is the most effective at reducing nutrient loss with runoff from turf? Author
Submitted to: Trade Journal Publication
Publication Type: Trade Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/5/2012
Publication Date: 7/10/2012
Citation: Rice, P.J., Horgan, B.P. 2012. Solid or hollow: which core cultivation method is the most effective at reducing nutrient loss with runoff from turf?. USGA Turfgrass and Environmental Research Online. 11(7):1-11. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Excess nutrients in surfaces waters can result in undesirable consequences. Experiments were designed to quantify phosphorus and nitrogen transport with runoff from plots maintained as a golf course fairway to identify which cultural practice, solid tine or hollow tine core cultivation, will maximize nutreint retention at the site of application and reduce nutrient concentrations in adjacent surface waters. Runoff volumes and amounts of ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and soluble phosphorus transported with runoff were less from turf managed with hollow tines than solid tines. Concentrations of nitrogen in a surface water receiving runoff from turf, managed with either solid tines or hollow tines, were below the drinking water standard for nitrate nitrogen (10 mg L-1) and levels associated with increased algal growth (1 mg L-1). Only surface water concentrations associated with hollow tine core cultivation 2 d prior to runoff displayed concentrations of phosphorus below the water quality criteria to limit eutrophication in streams draining into lakes and reservoirs (0.05 mg L-1). Regardless of the cultivation practice, concentrations of phosphorus in a surface water receiving turf runoff exceeded levels associated with increased algal growth and eutrophication within a lake or reservoir (0.025 mg L-1). Understanding nutrient transport with runoff and identifying strategies that reduce off-site transport will increase the effectiveness of applied nutrients at intended sites of application while reducing inputs to surrounding surface water resources.