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Title: Siricidae (Hymenoptera: Symphyta: Siricoidea) of the Western Hemisphere

item SCHIFF, N. - Delta Farmers Advocating Resource Management (FARM)
item GOULET, H. - Agriculture Canada
item SMITH, D. - Retired ARS Employee
item BOUDREAULT, C. - Agriculture Canada
item WILSON, A. - Delta Farmers Advocating Resource Management (FARM)
item SCHEFFLER, B. - Delta Farmers Advocating Resource Management (FARM)

Submitted to: Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/15/2012
Publication Date: 7/30/2012
Citation: Schiff, N.M., Goulet, H., Smith, D.R., Boudreault, C., Wilson, A.D., Scheffler, B.E. 2012. Siricidae (Hymenoptera: Symphyta: Siricoidea) of the Western Hemisphere. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification. No. 21, 305pp.

Interpretive Summary: The larvae of horntail wasps are all woodborers in various trees including pine, fir, spruce, hemlock, cypress, elm, oak, hickory, and can cause serious damage. Most larvae develop in weakened or dying trees, but their mines can degrade lumber and adults may emerge from construction timber in homes and other buildings. Because larvae are internal, immatures are easily transported by commerce and introduced outside their native range. In 2004 a non-native species was discovered in New York and spread to adjacent states and Canada. This same species attacked and killed healthy pines in plantation when it was introduced into Australia, South America, and South Africa. This revision of horntails for the Western Hemisphere was undertaken to provide tools to separate introductions from native species. We recognize seven genera and 33 species for the Western Hemisphere, including six new species based on morphological and DNA evidence. Another six of these species are adventive species in the New World. Descriptions, keys, and illustrations are provided, and hosts, life history information, and distributions are given for each species. This will be of value to foresters, APHIS, and other agencies as a guide to horntail biology and identification of species.

Technical Abstract: Horntails (Siricidae) are important wood-boring insects with 10 extant genera and about 120 species worldwide. Adults and larvae of Siricidae are often intercepted at ports so are of concern as potential alien invasive species. The family consists of 7 genera and 33 species in the New World: Eriotremex with one species, Sirex with 14 species, Sirotremex with one species, Teredon with one species, Tremex with two species, Urocerus with seven species, and Xeris with seven species. Five of these species have been accidentally introduced from the Old World: Eriotremex formosanus (Matsumura, 1912) into southeastern United States, probably from Vietnam; Sirex noctilio Fabricius, 1793, an important species pest of Pinus spp., into eastern North America, Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay from central Europe; Urocerus gigas (Linnaeus, 1758) into Chile, probably from Europe; Urocerus sah (Mocsáry, 1881) into northeastern North America, probably from southern Europe or North Africa; and Tremex fuscicornis (Fabricius, 1783) into Chile, probably from China. Six new species are described: Sirex abietinus Goulet, n. sp.; S. hispaniola Goulet, n. sp.; S. mexicanus Smith, n. sp.; S. xerophilus Schiff, n. sp.; Xeris chiricahua Smith, n. sp.; and X. tropicalis Goulet, n. sp. Five species are re-instated: Urocerus caudatus Cresson, 1865, sp. rev.; U. nitidus T. W. Harris, 1841, sp. rev.; Sirex melancholicus Westwood, 1874, sp. rev.; S. obesus Bradley, 1913, sp. rev.; and S. torvus M. Harris, 1779, sp. rev.. Thirteen new synonyms are proposed: Neoxeris Saini and Singh, 1987, n. syn. of Xeris Costa, 1894; Sirex hirsutus Kirby, 1882, n. syn. of S. juvencus (Linnaeus, 1758); Urocerus zonatus Norton, 1869, n. syn. of S. nigricornis Fabricius, 1781; Urocerus edwardsii Bullé, 1846, n. syn. of S. nigricornis Fabricius, 1781; Sirex fulvocinctus Westwood, 1874, n. syn. of S. nigricornis Fabricius, 1781; Sirex abaddon Westwood, 1874, n. syn. of S. nigricornis Fabricius, 1781; Sirex morio Westwood, 1874, n. syn. of S. nigricornis Fabricius, 1781; Sirex hopkinsi Ashmead, 1898, n. syn. of S. nigricornis Fabricius, 1781; Sirex leseleuci Tournier, 1890, n. syn. of S. torvus M. Harris, 1779; Sirex duplex Shuckard, 1837, n. syn. of S. torvus M. Harris, 1779; Sirex latifasciata Westwood, 1874, n. syn. of Urocerus albicornis (Fabricius, 1781); Xeris spectrum townesi Maa, 1949, n. syn. of X. indecisus (MacGillivray, 1893); and Xoanon mysta Semenov-Tian-Skanskij, 1921, n. syn. of X. matsumurae (Rohwer, 1910). Five new lectotypes are designated for: Paururus californicus Ashmead, 1904; P. pinicolus Ashmead, 1898; P. hopkinsi Ashmead, 1904; Sirex torvus M. Harris; and S. taxodii Ashmead 1904. Three changes in rank from subspecies to species level are proposed: Sirex californicus (Ashmead), n. stat., from S. juvencus californicus; Urocerus flavicornis (Fabricius) , n. stat., from U. gigas flavicornis; and Xeris indecisus (MacGillivray) , n. stat., from X. morrisoni indecisus. Two species are excluded from the New World Siricidae: Sirex juvencus (Linnaeus), and Xeris spectrum (Linnaeus); both species have been frequently intercepted in North America, but they are not established. One species is excluded from the Palaearctic Siricidae: Sirex cyaneus Fabricius. The European “Sirex cyaneus” is distinct from Sirex cyaneus; Sirex torvus M. Harris is the oldest name for this species. We characterize the family based on all extant genera. The world genera are keyed and a reconstructed phylogeny is proposed. For genera not found in the New World, we provide a synonymic list, a description, and information about diversity with significant references. For genera in the New World, each genus includes the following (if available and/or pertinent): synonymic list, diagnostic combination, description for one or both sexes, taxonomic notes, biological notes, diversity and distribution, and