|Straus, David - Dave|
Submitted to: Aquaculture International
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/1/2012
Publication Date: 5/6/2013
Citation: Marchand, P., Straus, D.L., Weinke, A., Pedersen, L., Meinelt, T. 2013. Effect of water hardness on peracetic toxicity to zebrafish, Danio rerio, embryos. Aquaculture International. 21(3):679-686. Interpretive Summary: Peracetic acid (PAA) has been suggested to be used to treat fish diseases to replace chemicals that have been phased out or are illegal to use anymore. There is not much information available on the toxicity of PAA to fish. This study was designed to determine whether water hardness has an effect on toxicity to zebrafish embryos. Embryos were exposed to PAA concentrations in low, medium and high hardness waters. It took a greater concentration of PAA to be toxic to the embryos in higher hardness water. Advantages to using PAA are that it does not produce any residues that would harm fish or the environment, and it degrades to these harmless residues rapidly. This information will enable fish farmers to treat fish diseases more efficiently and provide data to scientists about the toxicity of this compound.
Technical Abstract: The use of peracetic acid (PAA) in aquaculture has been suggested as an alternative therapeutic agent as use of previous therapeutants becomes restricted. Few data are available concerning fish toxicity by PAA or factors that affect this toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of water hardness on the acute toxicity of PAA products to embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Preliminary tests were conducted to determine the toxic range of the PAA products. Embryos were exposed to PAA concentrations ranging from 0 to 9 mg/L in low (25 mg/L hardness as CaCO3), medium (250 mg/L hardness as CaCO3) and high (2500 mg/L hardness as CaCO3) hardness waters. The lowest 24-h LC50 value was 2.24 mg/L PAA in the low hardness water and the highest LC50 value was 7.14 mg/L PAA in the high hardness water. Toxicity of PAA to embryos was found to be negatively correlated to water hardness. The pH decreased with increasing concentrations of PAA and the decrease in pH was found to be greatest in low hardness waters. In conclusion, aquaculturists should consider water hardness when utilizing PAA to avoid acidosis.