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Title: Extra long staple upland cotton for the production of superior yarn

item JOY, KOLBYN - Texas A&M University
item SMITH, C. WAYNE - Texas A&M University
item HEQUET, ERIC - Texas Tech University
item Hughs, Sidney
item HAGUE, STEVE - Texas A&M University

Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/16/2012
Publication Date: 4/9/2012
Citation: Joy, K., Smith, C., Hequet, E., Hughs, S.E. 2012. Extra long staple upland cotton for the production of superior yarn. Crop Science. 52(5):2089-2096.

Interpretive Summary: The Cotton Improvement Laboratory, Texas AgriLife Research has developed two experimental upland cottons with enhanced fiber length and strength characteristics. These cottons are being developed as a possible alternative to be used in fine count high quality yarns in the place of Pima cotton. The experimental cottons as well as a commercial Pima and an upland variety were grown for two different years (2007 and 2008) in College Station, TX and harvested with a spindle picker. Samples of all cottons were then ginned as a replicated test at the USDA, ARS, Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory, Mesilla Park, NM on both a saw and a roller gin for raw fiber quality evaluation. The ginned fiber was then spun into two different fine yarn counts for yarn quality evaluation. The object of these quality tests were to see if the two experimental cottons responded differently to saw and roller ginning than did the conventional upland or Pima varieties. The experimental upland varieties resulted in better yarn quality than the conventional upland variety but not better than the Pima variety. Both experimental varieties also responded to saw and roller ginning the same as did the two conventional cotton varieties indicating they can be ginned in current commercial gins with no quality loss.

Technical Abstract: Cotton, Gossypium spp., fibers are produced primarily by two species, G. hirsutum L., upland, and G. barbadense L., pima, which also is referred to as Extra Long Staple (ELS). The Cotton Improvement Laboratory, Texas AgriLife Research, has developed ELS upland lines through intraspecific crosses and subsequent pedigree selection. Two ELS upland lines along with ‘FiberMax 832LL’ (FM 832), and ‘DPL Pima HTO’ (Pima HTO) were grown in a randomized complete block design with three replications in College Station, TX during 2007 and 2008. Subplots of spindle picker-harvested seedcotton were ginned on a commercial grade saw gin or roller gin with lint cleaning appropriate for each ginning platform. Fiber parameters were determined by High Volume Instrument (HVI) and Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS) technology. Combed 50 Ne and 80 Ne count yarns were produced from lint from each subplot. The upland ELS lines exhibited longer (p<0.01) fibers than FM 832 but only TAM B182-33 ELS produced fiber longer or equal (p<0.01) to Pima HTO. Both ELS lines produced stronger combed 50 Ne count ring-spun yarns than FM 832 but not Pima HTO, which also produced stronger combed 80 Ne count ring-spun yarn than the upland ELS lines. All genotypes evaluated responded the same to ginning platform suggesting that further development of the upland ELS will not dictate a change in ginning equipment for upland cotton. The upland ELS trait contributes to significantly improved upland yarn quality.