Location: Soil Drainage ResearchTitle: Profiling USGA putting greens using GPR) Author
Submitted to: Symposium on Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract only
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/15/2012
Publication Date: 3/15/2012
Citation: Freeland, R.S., Allred, B.J., Sorochan, J.C. 2012. Profiling USGA putting greens using GPR [abstract]. Symposium on Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems Proceedings. March 25-29, 2012, Tuscon, Arizona. http://dx.doi.org/10.4133/1.4721681. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: All USGA-specification putting greens require a subsurface drainage system. A typical subsurface installation is a herringbone pattern of buried 100-mm dia. PVC drainage pipes, designed such that the central main line is placed along the line of maximum slope. Laterals are spaced no more than 5 m, running generally with the contour of the subgrade and extending outward from the main line to the green’s perimeter. Design considerations are given as to drainage discharge away from play areas, and for adherence to environmental regulations. An average USGA green costs about $40,000 to construct. Putting green drainage systems have limited lifespans, the subsurface infrastructure changing from weathering, green maintenance, and trafficking. Sediment and debris may enter plugging the system. Repair of failing drainage systems are laborious and expensive, made more difficult as precise positions of tile are commonly unknown. A non-intrusive survey protocol employing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and Real Time Kinematic (RTK) is presented to rapidly map functioning and non-functioning drainage tile. The maps are presented to the end user overlaid on the putting green using Google Earth. The GPR survey supplies spatial patterns of relative surface compaction, and provides the horizon thicknesses of organic matter, sand, and the gravel-base substratum for post installation verification of the USGA putting green specification.