Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/8/2012
Publication Date: 3/8/2012
Citation: Smith, D.J., Barri, A., Herges, G.R., Hahn, J., Yersin, A.G., Jourdan, A. 2012. In vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption of calcium [1-14C]butyrate in free or protected forms. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 60:3151-3157. Interpretive Summary: Efficient use of nutrients by livestock and humans is dependent upon a healthy gastrointestinal tract. In a similar manner, a healthy gastrointestinal tract allows food animals to better resist infection by harmful bacteria. A nutrient called butyrate (found in butter) has been proven to improve the health of gastrointestinal tissues of several species. Supplementation of butyrate into diets of animals would be beneficial for maintaining gastrointestinal health, but butyrate is so rapidly absorbed that it is not available to large portions of the intestine. This study was conducted to determine how rapidly butyrate, formulated into a slow-release product, is released and absorbed by broiler chicks. Chicks were chosen for their size, their ease of handling, and because broiler chicks could benefit from butyrate supplementation. Data clearly showed that the slow release formulation delayed butyrate absorption, but did not limit total butyrate absorption. The data suggest that encapsulated products could improve animal health.
Technical Abstract: Butyrate is a by-product of microbial carbohydrate fermentation that occurs primarily in the large intestine. When added to feed, butyrate quickly disappears in the upper digestive tract. Because butyrate is important for the epithelial cell development and for mucosal integrity, and for animal growth, an encapsulation technique has been developed which allows for the slow release of butyrate into the small and large intestines. The purpose of this study was to describe the in vitro release of calcium [1-14C]butyrate, formulated into a slow-release (protected) bead, into water and simulated intestinal fluids, and to compare the in vivo absorption and disposition of unprotected versus protected calcium [1-14C]butyrate in broiler chicks. Formulation of calcium [1-14C]butyrate into protected beads allowed release of 5.8 +/- 0.2 and 3.4 +/- 0.2% of the formulated radiocarbon into water and gastric fluid, respectively, after 2 h of incubation. Beads incubated in gastric fluid for 2 h and subsequently incubated in simulated intestinal fluid released at total of 17.4 +/- 0.8% of the formulated radioactivity. Release of respiratory [14C]CO2 after oral dosing of aqueous calcium [1-14C]butyrate in broiler chicks peaked at 15.2 +/- 5.2% per h 1.5 h after dosing; in contrast, maximal rates of release in chicks dosed with protected calcium [1-14C]butyrate occurred 4 h after dosing at 9.0 +/- 3.1% per h. The data suggested an improved efficacy of protected butyrate over non-protected butyrate. This study confirmed that encapsulation strategies designed to enhance delivery of ingredients to improve intestinal health are effective at prolonging intestinal exposure to butyrate. Encapsulation of such ingredients might benefit the food and feed industries.