Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/3/2012
Publication Date: 8/3/2012
Citation: Swayne, D.E. 2012. Global assessment of avian influenza control strategies with emphasis on vaccines and vaccination. Meeting Abstract.American Veterinary Medical Association, August 3-7,2012, San Diego,CA. CDROM Paper No.12557.
Technical Abstract: The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) has infect poultry and/or wild birds in 62 countries during the past 15 years. Field outbreaks have occurred in vaccinated flocks as the result of vaccine failure or improperly administration to the target species. Antigenic drift in field viruses has resulted in protection failure by classic H5 vaccines strains in Mexico, China, Egypt, Indonesia, Hong Kong and Vietnam. A comprehensive review of AI control methods has been completed. From 2002-2010, >100 billion doses of AI vaccine were used in poultry in 15 countries. The majority of vaccine (>90%) was used in China while significant amounts were used in Egypt, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Implementation of vaccination in these four countries occurred after H5N1 HPAI became endemic in domestic poultry and vaccination did not result in the endemic infections. The other 11 countries used less than 1% of the vaccine. Inactivated AI vaccines accounted for 95.5% and live recombinant virus vaccines for 4.5% of vaccine used. Clinical disease and mortality were prevented in chickens, and rural livelihoods and food security were maintained by using vaccines during HPAI outbreaks. Fewer outbreaks of low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza (LPNAI) have been reported than HPAI and only six countries used vaccine in control programs which accounted for 8% of the total H5/H7 AI vaccine usage. Strategies to reach the village poultry and small commercial sector with vaccine are essential for control and eradication of H5N1 AI, but require more knowledge on reservoirs, market chains and movement of poultry.