Location: Renewable Product Technology ResearchTitle: The effects of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex on Eimeria acervulina infection in broiler chicks Author
|Fahey, Jr., G|
Submitted to: Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/22/2012
Publication Date: 4/19/2012
Publication URL: http://ps.oxfordjournals.org/content/91/5/1089
Citation: Faber, T.A., Dilger, R.N., Hopkins, A.C., Price, N.P., Fahey, Jr., G.C. 2012. The effects of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex in broiler chicks challenged with Eimeria acervulina. Poultry Science. 91:1089-1096. DOI: org/10.3382/ps.2011-01993. Interpretive Summary: Infection of chickens by the parasite Eimeria acervulina generally results in a body weight loss. Certain carbohydrates may protect the gastric tract of chicks against this infection. We tested mannose-rich carbohydrates called GGMO that are a co-product of fiber board production as a feed supplement for chicks. Our results show that the body weight gain of chicks was not affected, but that the infection rates by Eimeria acervulina were lower. A low level dietary supplement of GGMO improved the chick's immune response by lowering anti-inflammatory cytokines in the chicken gut. We conclude that dietary GGMO can stimulate the chick's immune system, and may provide some protection against certain gut parasites. This work will be of value to chicken breeders and to broiler feed producers.
Technical Abstract: Fermentable carbohydrates may enhance the ability of the gastrointestinal tract to defend against pathogenic infection. We hypothesized that a mannose-rich, galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex would positively impact immune status and prevent weight loss resulting from acute coccidiosis (Eimeria acervulina) infection of chicks. Using a completely randomized design, day-old commercial broiler chicks (n=160; 4 replications/treatment; 5 chicks/replication) were assigned to one of four corn-soybean meal-based diets containing supplemental GGMO-AX (0, 1, 2, or 4%) that replaced dietary cellulose. On d 9 post-hatch, an equal number of chicks on each diet were inoculated with either distilled water (sham control) or E. acervulina (1x106 oocysts). All birds were euthanized on d 7 post-inoculation (PI) for collection of cecal contents and duodenal tissue. Overall, body weight gain of chicks was not affected by diet PI, while infection decreased (P < 0.01) weight gain on d 3-7 and 0-7 PI. Feed intake was not affected by dietary treatment, but infection decreased (P < 0.01) feed intake on d 3-7 and 0-7 PI. Overall, infection, but not diet, decreased (P < 0.01) G:F on d 3-7 and 0-7 PI. Cecal propionate concentrations were independently affected by infection and diet, while butyrate concentrations were affected only by infection (P = 0.02). Cecal Bifidobacterium spp. populations were affected (P < 0.01) by diet, with the 2% GGMO-AX resulting in the highest CFU/g of cecal contents (on a DM basis). Messenger RNA expression of all duodenal cytokines evaluated was affected by infection status (P = 0.02), but not by dietary treatment alone. Supplementing 4% GGMO-AX consistently resulted in the greatest fold change in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, while inhibiting anti-inflammatory cytokine expression, which indicates a more robust innate immune response. Despite decreasing performance, dietary supplementation with GGMO-AX improved select fermentation indices and the innate intestinal immune response to an acute E. acervulina infection.