Submitted to: OIE Scientific and Technical Review
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/15/2011
Publication Date: 12/31/2011
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/61348
Citation: Pavade, G., Awada, L., Hamilton, K., Swayne, D.E. 2011. The influence of economic indicators, poultry density and the performance of Veterinary Services on the control of high-pathogenicity avian influenza in poultry. OIE Scientific and Technical Review. 30(3):661-671. Interpretive Summary: High pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry is a globally important disease, but individual countries’ may have different outcomes based on their economic status, laboratory facilities, diagnostic capacity and various other factors. From our studies, high poultry density in least developed countries was associated with increased HPAI outbreak duration, time to eradication and number of outbreaks, but no such association was seen with developed and developing/transition countries. Most economic indicators do not show a direct correlation with the HPAI control data, but Organization for Economic and Community Development (OECD) countries which primarily comprises high income economies, high human resource development, and good governance had significantly fewer HPAI outbreaks, shorter outbreak duration, quicker eradication time, lower death rate and higher culling rates. In addition, higher quality veterinarians and their services decreased HPAI eradication time, poultry death rate, culling rate and occurrence of outbreaks. This suggests that countries which are transparent and provide adequate budget for development and maintenance of an efficiently performing veterinary services have better control of HPAI.
Technical Abstract: High pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) and low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza (LPNAI) in poultry are notifiable to World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) by its member countries. There may be variation between countries’ responses to avian influenza (AI) outbreak situations based on their economic status, laboratory facilities, diagnostic capacity and various other factors. The objective of this study was to ascertain the significant association between economic indicators (gross domestic product (GDP), agriculture gross domestic product (AGDP), % agriculture contribution to GDP (% AGDP), GDP per capita, gross national income (GNI), human development index (HDI) and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) status), poultry density and performance of veterinary services of a country with the HPAI control data for the years 2002-2010. Results indicate that poultry density of least developed countries had significant positive correlation with AI control data suggesting that as poultry density increases there is an increased HPAI outbreak duration, time to eradication and number of outbreaks. The economic indicators GDP, AGDP, % AGDP, GDP per capita, GNI and HDI do not show a direct correlation with the HPAI control data. However, the OECD countries which primarily comprise high income economies, high human resource development, and good governance had significantly fewer HPAI outbreaks, shorter outbreak duration, quicker eradication time and lower mortality rate when compared to non-OECD countries. However, OECD countries had higher culling rates than non-OECD countries suggesting sufficient emergency funding and financial compensation for broad stamping-out programs. The prevention and control of HPAI depends on the quality of veterinary services in each country. The OIE tool for the evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (OIE Performance of Veterinary Services tool) assists the OIE Member Countries to establish their current level of veterinary performance through qualitative evaluation of certain critical core competencies. Competencies like staffing of veterinarians/veterinary paraprofessionals, professional competencies, emergency funding, laboratory diagnostic capacity and resources, transparency, and comprehensive eradication control measures have a negative correlation with HPAI control data suggesting that when veterinary services perform at a higher level there was decreased AI eradication time, mortality rate, culling rate and occurrence of outbreaks. This suggests that countries which are transparent and provide adequate budget for development and maintenance of an efficiently performing veterinary services have better control of HPAI.