|RAMIREZ-ASCHERI, JOSE - Embrapa|
|LOSSO, JACK - Louisana State University|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/26/2012
Publication Date: 1/28/2013
Citation: Berrios, J.D., Ramirez-Ascheri, J.L., Losso, J.N. 2013. Extruded dry bean and other pulses. In: Siddiq, M. and Uebersax, M.A., editors. Dry Beans and Pulses-Production, Processing and Nutrition. Ames, IA: Wiley Blackwell, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 185-203.
Interpretive Summary: Extrusion is a mechanical process used to create objects or products of desired shapes, sizes, and texture by forcing material through a die opening under pressure. If the food is heated during the extrusion by external heaters in additional to mechanical friction, this process is known as extrusion cooking. Extrusion cooking is a relatively new and advanced food processing technique, compared to traditional baking and other cooking methods, to produce a variety of specialty foods, including puff snacks and breakfast cereals. This article presents valuable and critical review on the effect of extrusion processing on the physical, chemical, and nutritional properties of pulses and pulse-based extrudates, as well as, modification of their components and inactivation of undesirable compounds (anti-nutrients). It also presents the potential utilization of pulses and pulse-based formulations as safe, convenient, healthy, directly expanded extruded snacks and ready-to-eat type food products.
Technical Abstract: Extrusion is used commercially to produce high value breakfast and snack foods based on cereals such as wheat or corn. However, this processing method is not being commercially used for legume pulses seeds due to the perception that they do not expand well in extrusion. Extrusion cooking of pulses (dry beans, lentils, dry peas, and chickpeas) through a twin screw extruder run at screw speeds of 250-500 rpm, die temperatures of 120-160 degrees C, and feed moisture of 25-18% (wwb), produced highly expanded extrudates. The extrudates had reduced concentration of total oligosaccharides and significantly (p<0.05) higher in vitro protein digestibility than the controls (un-extruded) samples. Results of sensory evaluation tests demonstrated that the extrudates were considered acceptable as snacks and breakfast cereal type products. This article presents a valuable and critical review of research work using extrusion technology for the potential development of value-added foods from dry beans and other pulses.