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Title: Flocculation of kaolin and lignin by bovine blood and hemoglobin

item Piazza, George
item LORA, JAIRO H. - Green Value
item Garcia, Rafael

Submitted to: Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/17/2014
Publication Date: 5/23/2014
Publication URL:
Citation: Piazza, G.J., Lora, J., Garcia, R.A. 2014. Flocculation of kaolin and lignin by bovine blood and hemoglobin. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology. 90:1419-1425. DOI: 10.1002/jctb.4443.

Interpretive Summary: We are conducting research to find nonfood uses for animal by-products, such as blood, to help the animal processing industry supplement its income and provide renewable alternatives to products which are manufactured from natural gas or petroleum. We have found that beef blood and some of its component proteins are renewable flocculants with potential use in industrial processes and waste water treatment facilities. The flocculation activities of beef blood and one of its component proteins, hemoglobin, were measured under variations of salt concentration and acidity. The flocculation activities of beef blood and hemoglobin were compared to the activities of three nonrenewable commercial flocculants, and it was found that in some respects, beef blood and hemoglobin had equivalent or better activities. The results of this research will help promote the utilization of animal by-products as renewable flocculants.

Technical Abstract: Polymeric flocculants are used extensively for water purification, inhibition of soil erosion, and reduction in water leakage from unlined canals. Production of highly active, renewable polymeric flocculants to replace synthetic flocculants is a priority. Using suspensions of kaolin, flocculation by bovine blood (BB) and hemoglobin, the major protein component of BB, increased at acidic pH, but the extent of maximum flocculation was not affected by NaCl. The flocculation activities of BB and hemoglobin were measured and compared to those of poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC), and cationic and anionic polyacrylamides (PAM). The windows of application of BB and hemoglobin are similar to that of polyDADMAC, although a lower concentration of polyDADMAC was needed for flocculation. Similar concentrations of blood, hemoglobin, and cationic PAM were needed for maximum flocculation. The lowest level of suspended kaolin given by BB and hemoglobin was similar to that given by polyDADMAC and cationic PAM, and lower than that given by anionic PAM.