Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/5/2011
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: Interpretive Summary: Seeds function as an energy storehouse, providing nourishment to the developing embryo and the young seedling during germination. In addition, due to their oil, protein and carbohydrate composition, seeds serve as an important food source for both human and animal consumption. Legume seeds and peanuts, in particular, are inexpensive source of plant proteins and edible oil. Owing to their importance in global food security, it is necessary to understand the genetic, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms that impact seed quality and nutritive attributes. A comprehensive understanding of seed development and the environmental factors that impact the incorporation of the main storage reserves in seeds, such as proteins, fatty acids, starch, and secondary metabolites will enhance our ability to improve seed quality through breeding programs and molecular biology. Here we review the current understanding of seed development in peanut as well as conserved developmental mechansisms between legumes and Arabidopsis. Primarily, the biochemisty, genetics, and transcriptional regulation during seed development are discussed with emphasis on metabolic pathways of storage reserve biosynthesis. Additionally, we discuss the effects of drought on seed metabolism, oil quality, and composition. The review outlines the major changes and perspectives for future investigation of peanut seed development.
Technical Abstract: Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) confer disease resistance in many agricultural crops. In the case of Bacillus subtilis (UFLA285) isolated from the cotton producing state of Mato Grosso (Brazil), in addition to inducing foliar and root growth, disease resistance against damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani is observed. To probe molecular responses activated by the cotton growth promoting strain UFLA285, transcriptional analyses were performed in infected cotton with and without UFLA285-seed treatment. Microarray data of stem tissue revealed 247 genes differentially regulated in infected plants, seed treated versus untreated with UFLA285. Transcripts encoding disease resistance proteins via jasmonate/ethylene signaling as well as osmotic regulation via proline synthesis genes were differentially expressed with UFLA285 induction. Consistent with transcriptional regulation, UFLA285 increased plant-proline accumulation and dry weight. This study has identified transcriptional changes in cotton, induced by the beneficial soil bacterium UFLA285 and associated with disease control.