|TUBAJIKA, KAYIMBI - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)|
|TOSCANO, NICK - University Of California|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/15/2011
Publication Date: 10/30/2011
Citation: Tubajika, K.M., Puterka, G.J., Toscano, N.C., Chen, J., Civerolo, E.L. 2011. Effects of kaolin particle film and imidacloprid on glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)populations and the prevention of spread of Xylella fastidiosa in grape. In: Perveen, F., editor. Insecticides – Pest Engineering, Chapter 18. InTech Publishing Online. p. 409-424.
Technical Abstract: The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca coagulata (Say), was introduced into California and soon became a major pest of important agronomic, horticultural, landscape, ornamental crops and native trees in California. This pest feeds readily on grape and, in doing so, transmits X. fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's Disease (PD) in grape. Prior to the appearance of GWSS, California grape growers were able to manage PD in grape that is vectored by a number of other indigenous sharpshooters by the use of insecticides. Unfortunately, the GWSS is a more effective vector of PD which now threatens the grape industry. The use of insecticides has been effective against GWSS but the development of resistance and cross-resistance among widely used and newly applied systemic insecticides are a concern. Thus, there is a need to develop new strategies for integrated pest management (IPM) of this pest in grape. In this chapter we present the current insecticidal technologies for the control of this pest in comparison to a recently developed biorational material call, kaolin particle film (Surround®, NovaSource Tessenderlo Kerley, Inc., Phoenix, AZ). Particle film is based on a kaolin mineral that is applied as liquid spray which coats the plant with a protective mineral barrier to many pests and diseases. Kaolin is an inert and nontoxic mineral that provides improved safety to pesticide handlers, neutral effects on the environment, and is approved for organic food production. Data is presented where particle film treated grape vines showed greatly reduced GWSS infestations and fewer plants infected with PD in comparison to conventional insecticide treatments. A particle film treatment to grapes bordering citrus was also found to be an effective barrier to GWSS movement from citrus into grape while weekly insecticide treatments did not. Our results indicate that particle film is an effective alternative to conventional insecticides and shows great potential a tool for IPM in grape.