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Title: Self-perceived lactose intolerance results in lower intakes of calcium and dairy foods and is associated with hypertension and diabetes in adults

Author
item Nicklas, Theresa - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item Haiyan, Qu - Alabama State University
item Hughes, Sheryl - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item He, Mengying - Alabama State University
item Wagner, Sara - Alabama State University
item Foushee, Herman - Alabama State University
item Shewchuk, Richard - Alabama State University

Submitted to: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/7/2011
Publication Date: 7/1/2011
Citation: Nicklas, T.A., Haiyan, Q., Hughes, S.O., He, M., Wagner, S.E., Foushee, H.R., Shewchuk, R.M. 2011. Self-perceived lactose intolerance results in lower intakes of calcium and dairy foods and is associated with hypertension and diabetes in adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 94(1):191-198.

Interpretive Summary: Self-perceived lactose intolerance may result in problematic dietary intake. More studies are needed to understand how common self-perceived lactose intolerance is and how it relates to calcium intake and high blood pressure and diabetes. The objective of this study was to examine how self-perceived lactose intolerance impacts the intake of calcium in a nationally representative sample of White, Black, and Hispanic adults. The prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance was 7.8% for whites, 20.1% for blacks, and 8.8% for Hispanics. On average, people with self-perceived lactose intolerance consumed significantly less calcium from dairy foods than did people without self-perceived lactose intolerance. Self-perceived lactose-intolerant respondents had a significantly lower calcium intake from dairy foods and reported having a significantly higher rates of diabetes and hypertension.

Technical Abstract: Self-perceived lactose intolerance may result in adverse dietary modifications; thus, more studies are needed to understand the prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance and how it relates to calcium intake and selected health conditions. The objective was to examine the effects of self-perceived lactose intolerance as it relates to calcium intake and specific health problems that have been attributed to reduced intakes of calcium and dairy foods in a nationally representative multiethnic sample of adults. This was a cross-sectional study in a national sample of 3452 adults. The relation between self-perceived lactose intolerance, calcium intakes, and physician-diagnosed health conditions was analyzed by using linear regression analyses. Of the total sample, 12.3% of respondents perceived themselves to be lactose intolerant. The age-adjusted prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance was 7.8% for non-Hispanic whites, 20.1% for non-Hispanic blacks, and 8.8% for Hispanics. Respondents with self-perceived lactose intolerance had significantly lower (P less than 0.05) average daily calcium intakes from dairy foods than did those without self-perceived lactose intolerance. A significantly higher (P less than 0.05) percentage of respondents with self-perceived lactose intolerance than of respondents without self-perceived lactose intolerance reported having physician-diagnosed diabetes and hypertension. The odds of self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes or hypertension decreased by factors of 0.70 and 0.60, respectively, for a 1000-mg increase in calcium intake from dairy foods per day. In conclusion, self-perceived lactose-intolerant respondents had a significantly lower calcium intake from dairy foods and reported having a significantly higher rate of physician-diagnosed diabetes and hypertension.