|JOSEPH, JAMES - Former ARS Employee|
Submitted to: Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/8/2009
Publication Date: 7/20/2010
Citation: Joseph, J.J., Shukitt Hale, B., Willis, L. 2010. Mitigation of oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling by fruit and walnut polyphenols: implications for cognitive aging. In: Santos-Buelga, C., Escribano-Bailon, M., Lattanzio V., editors. Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research. Volume 2. Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2:283-293.
Technical Abstract: Numerous epidemiological studies have indicated that individuals who consume a diet containing high amounts of fruits and vegetables exhibit fewer age-related diseases such as Alzheimer Disease (AD). A recent report has indicated that individuals who consumed a diet containing 2.5 servings of fruit and vegetables/day were 40% less likely to develop AD. Research from our laboratory has suggested that dietary supplementation with fruit or vegetable extracts high in antioxidants (e.g., blueberry, BB) can decrease the enhanced vulnerability to oxidative stress (OS) that occurs in aging and these reductions are expressed as improvements in behavior. In addition to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, there appear to be additional multiple mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects observed from these supplementations. These mechanisms include enhancement of neuronal communication via alterations in neuronal signaling by enhancing the endogenous antioxidant and neuronal signaling capabilities of the organism. Additionally, it appears that BB and possibly other berryfruit (e.g., strawberries) and concord grapes can directly reduce stress signaling. Therefore, the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effects of the berryfruit polyphenols may only represent a small aspect of their beneficial properties in aging.