|Wolters, William - Bill|
Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/15/2011
Publication Date: 9/15/2011
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/58126
Citation: Raatz, S.K., Golovko, M.Y., Brose, S.A., Rosenberger, T.A., Burr, G.S., Wolters, W.R., Picklo, M.J. 2011. Baking reduces prostaglandin, resolvin, and hydroxy-fatty acid content of farm-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59:11278–11286. Interpretive Summary: Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 PUFA oxidation products have known protective effects in the vasculature that inhibit inflammation and thrombosis. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products and the nature of PUFA oxidation products. Our data indicate that baking of farm-raised Atlantic salmon does not increase levels of oxidative damage to PUFA, but rather leads to the decrease of pre-existing oxidation products. It is unlikely that the levels of n-3 PUFA oxidation products are of physiologic consequence in humans following salmon consumption given the levels determined. Furthermore, our data indicate that baking does not cause loss of PUFA from the fish. Our data indicate that the beneficial effects of fish consumption are the result of consuming of the parent n-3 PUFA, not fatty acid oxidation products present in the fish.
Technical Abstract: Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature that inhibit inflammation and thrombosis. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products and the nature of PUFA oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo Salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the content of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA) from linoleic acid, arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6), and EPA, prostanoids, and resolvins. In raw salmon, MHFA content was 55.0 ± 20.8 µg/ 100g portion. Prostaglandin PGE2 had the highest prostanoid content at 339 ± 55 ng/100 g portion in raw salmon fillets. Our data demonstrated that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regio-isomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from ARA and EPA while significantly increasing content of hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The content of arachidonate-derived prostaglandins, isoprostanes, and docosahexaenoic acid-derived resolvin D1 and resolvin D2 were reduced several-fold with baking. These data indicate that the levels of prostanoids and resolvins in raw or cooked salmon are not of physiologic consequence in humans, suggesting that the beneficial effects of fish consumption is the result of consuming of the parent fatty acids, not fatty acid oxidation products, present in the salmon.