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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


Location: Animal Metabolism-Agricultural Chemicals Research

Title: In vivo and in vitro estrogenicity and GC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS quantification of estrogens in aqueous mixtures of raw and pelletized poultry litter

item Yonkos, Lance
item Fisher, Daniel
item Friedel, Elizabeth
item Wilson, Vickie
item Hutchins, Stephen
item Lazorchak, Jame
item Reddy, Tirumuru
item Shappell, Nancy
item Van Veld, Peter
item Hale, Robert

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/19/2011
Publication Date: 11/1/2011
Citation: Yonkos, L.T., Fisher, D.J., Friedel, E.A., Wilson, V.S., Hutchins, S.R., Lazorchak, J.M., Reddy, T.V., Shappell, N.W., Van Veld, P.A., Hale, R.C. 2011. In vivo and in vitro estrogenicity and GC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS quantification of estrogens in aqueous mixtures of raw and pelletized poultry litter. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry North America 32nd Annual Meeting, November 13-17, 2011, Boston, MA. abstr. 17, p. 8.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Abundance, degradation, and bio-activity of estrogens were examined in aqueous solutions of poultry litter from three Delmarva broiler integrators, a pelletized litter sample, a biosolids sample from a regional WWTP, and an estrone (E1) positive control allowed to stand static for 28 days. Litter and biosolids samples were generated to be analogous to organically fertilized agricultural runoff. Estrogens, 17ß-estradiol (E2) and E1, were quantified in aqueous samples via GC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS at day 0, 9, and 28. Likewise, estrogenicity was investigated using a pair of in vitro assays (E-screen and Kbluc) on days 0, 9, and 28 and in vivo by exposing mature male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) continuously (day 0 – 9) to investigate vitellogenin (Vtg) induction (plasma protein and liver Vtg mRNA). All three raw litter samples showed a significant increase in E1 and E2 between day 0 and day 9 before decreasing by day 28. In vitro estrogenicity showed a corresponding increase to day 9 with EEQ (E2 equivalent) levels paralleling E2 concentrations measured via GC/MS/MS. All litter samples (raw and pelletized) induced Vtg with plasma protein and mRNA concentrations correlating strongly with peak (day 9) E2 concentrations. Increases in estrogens between day 0 and day 9 are likely explained by microbial deconjugation of glucuronide and sulfate groups to produce native/bioactive E1 and E2. Results indicate that fecal estrogens can persist and estrogenicity actually increase in aqueous solutions days to weeks after introduction. Results and implications to natural waters will be discussed.

Last Modified: 10/17/2017
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