|MILLER, B - Western Kentucky University|
|GROVES, C - Western Kentucky University|
Submitted to: National Speleological Society Annual Meeting
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/10/2011
Publication Date: 7/18/2011
Citation: Lerch, R.N., Miller, B.V., Groves, C.G. 2011. Resource Documentation and Recharge Area Delineation of a Large Fluvial Karst System: Carroll Cave, Missouri [abstract]. National Speleological Society Annual Meeting, July 18-22, 2011, Glenwood Springs, Colorado. 34.
Technical Abstract: Located along Wet Glaize Creek in the central Missouri Ozarks, Toronto Spring is a distributary spring system where surface stream flow mixes with flow from the Carroll Cave system. Following recharge area delineations for Thunder River and Confusion Creek in Carroll Cave, flow from these rivers was found to discharge from ten of the 13 springs at Toronto. Seepage runs along Wet Glaize Creek, upstream of the springs, identified two major losing reaches of streamway which appear to be controlled by proximity to the Montreal Fault Block. Dye tracing confirmed the hydrologic connection between these losing reaches and ten of the spring outlets. Base flow water chemistry data gathered through the use of dataloggers and ion sample collection was used to characterize the differences among individual springs. Statistical analysis of the water chemistry data indicated that springs hydrologically connected to Carroll Cave were typically similar in ion concentrations. Using ion data gathered over the duration of the project, a two end member mixing model was developed for the spring system, using Wet Glaize Creek and Carroll Cave as the primary end members. The mixing models showed that groups of springs had very similar chemistry, varying by less than five percent in each model. The similarities of these groups have allowed for delineating possible conduit patterns which contribute water to the various springs at Toronto Springs. Depending on the hydrologic conditions, flow discharging from springs at Toronto Springs was either dominated by Carroll Cave, under baseflow, or by Wet Glaize Creek during high flow.