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Title: Understanding Genetic Disease Resistance

Author
item Lunney, Joan
item ROWLAND, RANDY - KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY

Submitted to: National Hog Farmer
Publication Type: Popular Publication
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/31/2011
Publication Date: 4/15/2011
Citation: Lunney, J.K., Rowland, R.R. 2011. Understanding Genetic Disease Resistance. National Hog Farmer. Blueprint Immunology 101. April 15, 2011: p.30-42.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Much effort has already been expended to understand disease resistance for a number of diseases, most notably porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). This article explains the background for these efforts and the progress for understanding resistance to PRRS and certain other diseases. It reviews the goals of the PRRS Host Genetics Consortium (PHGC) and provides explanation of the importance of the PHGC samples for developing a deep phenotype from which to evaluate PRRS resistance/ susceptibility. Results to date have verified that there is extensive variation in the pig’s response to virulent PRRSV infection as measured by viral level and weight gain. It summarizes the current efforts to evaluate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analyzed by Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify alleles and chromosomal regions that regulate anti-PRRSV infection responses. Overall, the PHGC project will enable researchers to discover and verify important genotypes and phenotypes that predict resistance/ susceptibility to PRRSV infection. Swine genome mapping and marker assisted selection efforts will help enhance future disease prevention efforts. Gene markers should help to identify pigs resistant to certain swine diseases and may provide information on alternate disease control mechanisms based on which new vaccines or biotherapeutics may be designed. This knowledge may be used to build more naturally resistant pigs and potentially more efficacious vaccines for PRRS and other swine disease challenges.