Submitted to: International Organization for Biological Control
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/12/2011
Publication Date: 10/1/2012
Citation: Johnson, M.W., Daane, K.M., Wang, X., Yokoyama, V.Y., Pickett, C., Hoelmer, K.A., Kirk, A.A. 2012. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly. International Organization for Biological Control. 79: 63-69. Interpretive Summary: Olive fruit fly is a primary pest of olives grown for canning and oil in California. Development of biological control programs for olive fruit fly is dependent on selection of natural enemies that adapt to different climate conditions in the state. The success of biological control is related to a natural enemy’s host specificity, proper identification and production, and association with local fauna. Biological control is the preferred control tactic for olive fruit fly because of potential long-term sustainability and an environmentally friendly method of pest reduction.
Technical Abstract: Domestication of olive fruit, Olea europaea L., produced a better host for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), than wild olives, but fruit domestication reduced natural enemy efficiency. Important factors for selection of natural enemies for control of olive fruit fly include climate matching, alternate host risk assessments, rearing methods, and association of host and local natural enemy fauna. Molecular studies help distinguish original areas of evolution of the host, identify natural enemies, and separate sibling species and geographic strains. Host mortality may result from biological control or abiotic factors including high temperature related to natural enemy-free space. Studies of the association between natural enemies and the olive fruit fly contributes to the understanding of successful biocontrol.