Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/11/2011
Publication Date: 11/15/2011
Publication URL: http://naldc.nal.usda.gov.d2.nal.usda.gov/download/53878/PDF
Citation: Ramseyer, D.D., Bettge, A.D., Morris, C.F. 2011. Flour mill stream blending affects sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quality and oxidative cross-linking potential of soft white wheat. Journal of Food Science. 76:C1300-C1306. Interpretive Summary: Certain tests are commonly used to evaluate or predict the end-use attributes of wheat flour. Tests such as SDS-sedimentation, mixograph, and solvent retention capacity (SRC) produce quick results and are conducive to high throughput. However, it is generally considered more reliable to assess the end-use quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties and grain lots through bake tests. Production of a model food product (pan bread, cookies, pancakes, noodles, crackers) as an estimation of end-use quality is considered to be a more “true” assessment of functionality of the flour. Two bake tests which are routinely used to evaluate soft white and club wheat quality are sugar snap cookies and Japanese sponge cakes. Identifying factors that affect variation in sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quality is important in order to produce more consistent and higher quality products. Sugar snap cookie quality is affected by factors such as starch damage. Alternatively, Japanese sponge cakes are used to assess the suitability of soft white and club wheat flours for high moisture cake products consumed in the Pacific-Asian market. It is of interest to identify sources of variation in flour blends and the effects on end-use quality. The purpose of this research was to establish the effect of mill stream blending for soft and club wheat varieties on total arabinoxylan (TAX), water-unextractable arabinoxylan (WUAX) and water-extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) content as well as the oxidative cross-linking potential of straight grade and patent flours.
Technical Abstract: The purpose of this research was to study the functional differences between straight grade (75% extraction rate) and patent (60% extraction rate) flour blends from 28 genetically pure soft white and club wheat grain lots, as evidenced by variation in sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quality. Functional differences were examined relative to arabinoxylan content, protein content, and oxidative cross-linking potential of flour slurries. Oxidative cross-linking measurements were obtained on flour slurries with a low shear Bostwick consistometer, and considered endogenous oxidative cross-linking potential (water alone) or enhanced oxidative cross-linking potential (with added hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase). A two-way ANOVA indicated that flour blend was the greater source of variation compared to grain lot for all response variables except water-extractable arabinoxylan content. Patent flours produced larger sugar snap cookies and Japanese sponge cakes, and contained significantly less total and water-unextractable arabinoxylans, protein and ash than did straight-grade flours. Patent flours produced more viscous slurries for endogenous and enhanced cross-linking measurements compared to the straight grade flours. The functional differences in patent versus straight grade flours appear to be related to the particular mill streams which were utilized in the formulation of the two flour blends and compositional differences among those streams.