Submitted to: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/13/2011
Publication Date: 4/1/2012
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/61378
Citation: Maxted, A.M., Lutrell, M.P., Goekjian, V., Brown, J.D., Niles, L.J., Dey, A.D., Kalasz, K.S., Swayne, D.E., Stallknecht, D. 2012. Avian influenza virus infection dynamics in shorebird hosts. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 48(2):322-334. Interpretive Summary: Shorebirds from Delaware Bay were sampled for avian influenza virus (AIV) from 2000-2008 and the data was analyzed using special mathematical modeling. Ruddy Turnstones had AIV infection that peaked in mid-late May with an increase in anti-AIV antibody during the migratory stopover period. Red Knots, Sanderlings, and Laughing Gulls were rarely infected. These results suggest that, although hundreds of thousands of birds concentrate at Delaware Bay during spring, the dynamics of AIV infection differ between species, perhaps due to differences in susceptibility of different bird species, potential for contact with AIV at this site, or prior exposure.
Technical Abstract: Using serial cross-sectional data from 2000-2008 and generalized linear models, we examined temporal trends of springtime avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence and antibody prevalence in four Charadriiformes species at the Delaware Bay migratory stopover site. Prevalence of AIV in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres morinella) peaked in mid-late May and antibody prevalence increased over the stopover period. Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa), Sanderlings (Calidris alba), and Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla) were rarely infected, but changes in antibody prevalence over their stopover period at Delaware Bay differed between species. In Red Knots, declining antibody prevalence suggested exposure to AIV prior to arrival at Delaware Bay with little re-exposure at this site. Antibody prevalence was high through the season in Laughing Gulls and low in Sanderlings. Both prevalence and antibody prevalence in Sanderlings varied directly with those in Turnstones, suggesting virus spillover to this species. Results indicate that, although hundreds of thousands of birds concentrate at Delaware Bay during spring, dynamics of AIV infection differ between species, perhaps due to differences in susceptibility, potential for contact with AIV at this site, or prior exposure. Additionally, AIV is unlikely to be maintained in Ruddy Turnstones or other shorebirds throughout the annual cycle.