|De Smet, David|
|De Saeger, Sarah|
Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/18/2011
Publication Date: 4/27/2011
Citation: Li, Y., Wang, Z., Beier, R.C., Shen, J., De Smet, D., De Saeger, S., Zhang, S. 2011. T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin: Review of toxicity, metabolism, and analytical methods. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59:3441-3453. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: This review focuses on the toxicity and metabolism of T-2 toxin and the analytical methods used for the determination of T-2 toxin. Among the naturally occurring trichothecenes in food and feed, T-2 toxin is a cytotoxic fungal secondary metabolite produced by various species of Fusarium. Following ingestion, T-2 toxin causes acute and chronic toxicity to animals and humans. T-2 toxin exposure in piglets can cause weight loss, lower red blood cell count, reduction in leucocytes and plasma glucose levels, and pathological changes in the liver and stomach. T-2 toxin can also induce apoptosis in the immune system and gastrointestinal and fetal tissues. T-2 toxin is usually metabolized and eliminated after ingestion. It can be metabolized by both in vivo and in vitro metabolic systems, yielding more than 20 metabolites via hydrolysis, hydroxylation, de-epoxidation, and glucuronide conjugation. Consequently, there is a possibility of human consumption of animal products contaminated with T-2 toxin and its metabolites. Some metabolites are equally or even more toxic than T-2 toxin itself. Distribution and metabolism studies of T-2 toxin in animals could provide important information for both evaluating and controlling human exposure to residual levels of T-2 toxin and its metabolites in foods of animal origin. The determination of T-2 toxin and its metabolites has been addressed, and several methods based on traditional chromatographic or immunoassay techniques are described, as well as various mass spectrometry methods exhibiting high sensitivity and accuracy. This review will contribute to a better understanding of T-2 toxin exposure in animals and humans and T-2 toxin metabolism, toxicity, and analytical methods, which may be useful in risk assessment and the control of T-2 toxin exposure.