|MA, HAILE - Jiangsu University|
|LI, BAOGUO - University Of California|
|ATUNGULU, GRIFFITHS - University Of Southern California|
Submitted to: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/17/2011
Publication Date: 12/17/2011
Publication URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.09.007
Citation: Ma, H., Pan, Z., Li, B., Atungulu, G.G., Olson, D.A., Wall, M.M., Mchugh, T.H. 2011. Properties of extruded expandable breadfruit products. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 46(1):326-334. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2011.09.007.
Interpretive Summary: There is an increased research interest in developing new value-added products from breadfruits. The ultimate objective of this study was to develop 100% breadfruit based extruded product that can be used as a breakfast cereal or snacks. The effect of processing parameters including moisture content (MC), screw speed, feed rate and barrel temperature on product quality such as expansion ratio, color, texture, bulk density, water absorption index (WAI) and water solubility index (WAI) are studied and reported in this research.
Technical Abstract: Dried breadfruit was extruded with a twin screw extruder to develop a value-added expanded fruit product. This research studied the effects of barrel temperature (120-160°C), moisture content (13-25%), feeding rate (13-25 kg/h) and screw speed (115-175rpm) on physicochemical properties (bulk density, expansion ratio, color difference, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI)), sensory characteristics (hardness and crispness) and energy consumption (specific mechanical energy (SME)). Eight quadratic models were obtained to predict the quality of expanded breadfruit under various processing conditions. Among these models, the linear term of screw speed had a very significant effects on all indexes, especially WAI (p<0.0001), WSI (p<0.001), expansion ratio (p<0.001), bulk density (p<0.001), color (p<0.001) and SME (p<0.001). The interaction term of feed rate and temperature, and the square term of screw speed had no significant influences (p=0.1). There was a significantly positive correlation between crispness, hardness and bulk density, but a negative correlation between WAI and WSI. The values of hardness, crispness and bulk density were closely related to the shape of force-time curves and characteristics of their surface and internal structure.