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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


Location: Children's Nutrition Research Center

Title: Influences of timing and duration of formula feeding on infant growth

item Heird, William

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/1/2009
Publication Date: 1/27/2010
Citation: Heird, W.C. 2010. Influences of timing and duration of formula feeding on infant growth. In: Symonds, M.E., Ramsay, M.M., editors. Maternal-Fetal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 92-105.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: All national and international groups responsible for making nutritional recommendations for infants endorse exclusive breastfeeding for the first several months of life continued with breastfeeding for as long as 2 years or more and timely introduction of appropriate complementary foods. However, many infants, either are not breast-fed or are not breast-fed for the recommended time. For these infants, the only acceptable alternative is thought to be a modern infant formula and many infants are formula-fed for a large part of the first year of life and those who are not breast-fed or formula-fed receive a variety of liquids that contribute to higher rates of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Although infants fed modern formulas do not experience all of the advantages afforded by human milk (e.g., fewer common infections), they do quite well. Thus, to provide a historical perspective into the evolution of modern infant formulas, this chapter begins with a brief history of formula feeding. This is followed by discussions of the types and composition of modern infant formulas, the regulation of infant formula composition and marketing, the growth of formula-fed vs. breast-fed infants, and the appropriate introduction of complementary foods for both breast-fed and formula-fed infants.

Last Modified: 06/22/2017
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