Submitted to: Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Jiangxiensis
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/10/2010
Publication Date: 10/20/2010
Publication URL: http://xuebao.jxau.edu.cn/picture/article/66/39/0a/3edc4117426a87c0ae297838b63c/453e7fd9-c1ce-4ee5-b854-c5976df861e0.pdf
Citation: Jinquan, W., Smith, M.T. 2010. Successful approaches for battling invasive species in developed countries. Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Jiangxiensis. 32(5):1040-1055. Interpretive Summary: Introduction of invasive insect species increasingly threaten natural resources worldwide, spurred in large part by globalization. Developed countries have responded to the threat and onslaught of invasive species through a combination of complementary approaches, including prevention, early detection and rapid response, eradication, containment, suppression and control of invasive species. These approaches are facilitated through legislation to limit entry, research and development of early detection and rapid response technologies, and the implementation of science based programs for eradication, containment and/or suppression. Therefore, in the past two decades, developed countries have made major strides in the management of invasive species. This paper highlights advances in development of complementary approaches to combat invasive insects and plants, with examples from invasive management programs in five developed countries, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Britain, Australia. Collectively, these examples serve as models for adaptive management programs for developing countries.
Technical Abstract: Biological invasions increasingly threaten natural resources and reduce biological diversity worldwide. To curtail biological invasions, developed countries have adopted multitire approaches that systematically address the process of invasion, encompassing introduction, establishment, spread and naturalization of invasive species. This paper addresses the primary approaches to successful adaptive management programs for invasive species, including prevention, early detection and rapid response, eradication, containment, suppression and control, with examples from United States, Canada, New Zealand, Great Britian and Australia. Prevention of entry of invasive species is facilitated largely through legislation, targeting risk assessment of pathways and ports of entry. Development of new legislation has significanly accelerated in the past two decades, increasingly focusing on individual or small groups of species. Successful early detection and rapid response to invasive species depends in large part on public education and outreach, and research and development of detection technologies. Rapid response to new introductions, particularly while invasive species are at a low population level, is key to preventing their establishment, spread and naturalization. Early detection and rapid response to the introduction of the Citrus Longhorned Beetle (CLB) (Anoplophora chinesis) in the United States provides an example of one approach and resulting outcome of an eradication program. However, comparison and contrast among different CLB eradication programs are vitally important to formulating a template for other developed and developing countries. Prospects for successful eradication of a given invasive species also depends on a limited number of biological characteristics, including its reproductive capacity, host range, rate of spread, effective detection at low population density and susceptibilty to effective control methods. Furthermore, measures and criteria of successful eradication vary widely within and among species, infestations, and political and legislative constraints (e.g. Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis). Containment, suppression and control are also approaches used to limit the impact of invasive species. Tephritid fruit flies (e.g. Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera cucurbitae, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera latifrons) represent a unique example. In spite of recurring introductions, successful eradication is achieved through very effective early detection and delimiting survey, both of which then facilitate containment, suppression and control. The approaches for managing invasive species presented in this paper collectively serve as models for adaptive management programs that can be modified to meet the needs in developing countries.