|STANHOPE, KIMBER - University Of California|
|BREMER, ANDREW - Vanderbilt University|
|NATKAJIMA, KATSUYUKI - Tufts University|
|ITO, YASUKI - Denka Seiken|
|NAKANO, TAKAMITSU - Denka Seiken|
|CHEN, GUOXIA - University Of California|
|FONG, TAK - University Of California|
|LEE, VIVIEN - University Of California|
|MENORCA, ROSEANNE - University Of California|
|HAVEL, PETER - University Of California|
Submitted to: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/5/2011
Publication Date: 8/17/2011
Citation: Stanhope, K., Bremer, A.A., Natkajima, K., Ito, Y., Nakano, T., Chen, G., Fong, T.H., Lee, V., Menorca, R., Keim, N.L., Havel, P.J. 2011. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF CONSUMING GLUCOSE-, FRUCTOSE-, AND HIGH FRUCTOSE CORN SYRUP-SWEETENED BEVERAGES FOR 2 WEEKS ON FASTING AND POSTPRANDIAL LIPID AND LIPOPROTEIN PROFILES IN YOUNG MEN AND WOMEN. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 96(10):E1596-1605.
Interpretive Summary: The American Heart Association recommends that added sugar consumption be limited to 100-150 kcal/day, but the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Committee suggested that added sugars should contribute no more than 25% of total calories—an amount that would yield more than the AHA limit. In this study we compared the effects of drinking beverages sweetened with glucose, fructose, or high fructose corn syrup at the upper limit recommended by the Dietary Guidelines Committee to determine how blood lipid levels respond. We found that the volunteers who drank the beverages sweetened with fructose or high fructose corn syrup for 2 weeks had increased lipids, particularly low density lipoproteins. These lipids are known to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This work provides additional evidence that it may be advisable to lower added sugar intake to a level below the 25% of total calories.
Technical Abstract: While the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee has recommended that added sugar consumption be limited to 100-150 kcal/d, it has been reported that long-term sugar intakes as high as 25-50% of energy do not have adverse effects on metabolic syndrome components in human subjects. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of consuming glucose, fructose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Subjects were 48 adults (age: 18 - 40 years; BMI: 18 - 35 kg/m2) who resided at the UC Davis Clinical Research Center (CCRC) for 3.5 days of baseline testing while consuming a high carbohydrate, energy-balanced diet. For 12 days participants lived at home and consumed their usual ad libitum diets along with 3 serving/d glucose (n=16), fructose- (n=16), or HFCS-sweetened (n=16) beverages, which provided 25% of energy requirements. Subjects then returned to the CCRC for 3.5 days of intervention testing while consuming an energy-balanced diet, which included the sugar-sweetened beverages. Plasma concentrations of fasting and postprandial triglyceride (TG), fasting low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (apoB) were the outcome measures of interest. Fasting TG concentrations were not differentially affected by sugar (P=0.39). Late-evening TG peaks were significantly increased by fructose (+52 ± 10 mg/dl) and HFCS (+41 ± 7 mg/dl), but not by glucose consumption (+19 ± 9, P = 0.016, effect of sugar). Fasting LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and apoB concentrations were increased in subjects consuming fructose (+11±3, +11±3, +9±2 mg/dl) and HFCS (+16±4, +21±5, +12±3 mg/dl), but not in subjects consuming glucose (+1±3, +2±3, +1±2 mg/dl), respectively; P=0.016, P=0.0012, P=0.029, effect of sugar). Consumption of HFCS-sweetened beverages for 2 weeks at 25% of energy requirements increased lipid parameters (LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and apoB) that are associated with cardiovascular disease risk comparably to consumption of fructose and significantly more than consumption of glucose in young, normal weight and overweight/obese adults.