Submitted to: Veterinary Parasitology
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/5/2011
Publication Date: 5/4/2011
Citation: Lillehoj, H.S., Jang, S.I., Lee, S.H., Lee, K.W., Park, M.S., Lillehoj, E.P., Betrand, F., Dupuis, L., Deville, S. 2011. Effect of montanide adjuvants on recombinant coccidia antigen vaccination against Eimeria infection in commercial meat-type chickens. Veterinary Parasitology. 172(3-4):221-228. Interpretive Summary: Coccidiosis is a major poultry disease of great economic importance that is caused by at least seven species of Eimeria apicomplexan protozoa that infect the intestinal mucosa. Afflicted animals exhibit a variety of clinical manifestations including nutrient malabsorption, inefficient feed utilization, impaired body weight gain and, in severe cases, mortality. Although prophylactic medication is the predominant method used to suppress flock infections, new disease control strategies are needed due to the emergence of drug-resistant field strains of Eimeria and increasing consumer demands for drug-free poultry meat. In this study, ARS scientists collaborated with Seppic company scientists to discover novel immune mechanisms exerted by the Montanide ISA series of water-in-oil emulsion adjuvants in poultry. This adjuvant has been shown superior efficacy with a variety of human and animal vaccines and this study demonstrated its action in poultry as well. This is the first report to show that Montanide adjuvants are able to enhance the immunogenicity of avian coccidiosis subunit vaccines. Therefore, the findings of this study will be important for poultry vaccine industry and the results are being used to develop poultry vaccines against other enteric diseases.
Technical Abstract: The current study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of Montanide' adjuvants on protein subunit vaccination against experimental avian coccidiosis. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mixed with one of five adjuvants (ISA 70, ISA 71, ISA 201, ISA 206, or Montanide Gel), and body weight gains, fecal oocyst shedding, and humoral and innate immune responses were evaluated following oral infection with live E. acervulina oocysts. Immunization with profilin plus ISA 70 or ISA 71 increased body weight gains compared with vaccination with profilin alone. Profilin plus ISA 71 also reduced fecal oocyst shedding compared with vaccination in the absence of adjuvant. All adjuvants enhanced profilin serum antibody titers. Increased levels of gene transcripts encoding IL-2, IL-10, IL-17A, and IFN-', but decreased levels of IL-15 mRNAs, were seen in intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes of chickens immunized with profilin plus adjuvants compared with immunization with profilin alone. Finally, increased infiltration of CD8+ lymphocytes at the site of immunization was observed in birds given profilin plus ISA 71 compared with profilin alone. These results suggest that vaccination with the E. acervulina profilin subunit vaccine in combination with Montanide adjuvants enhances protective immunity against experimental avian coccidiosis.